hosted and freestanding implementations

Discussion in 'C++' started by subramanian100in@yahoo.com, India, Dec 10, 2009.

  1. , India

    , India Guest

    The ISO/IEC-14882:2003 document mentions the following in the section
    "1.4 Implementation Compliance" paragraph 7:

    "Two kinds of implementations of defined:hosted and freestanding. For
    a hosted implementation, this International Standard defines the set
    of available libraries. A freestanding implementation is one in which
    the execution may take place without the benefit of an operating
    system, and has an implementation-defined set of libraries that
    includes certain language-support libraries(17.4.1.3)"

    From the above definition, I am unable to understand what is a hosted
    implementation and and what is a freestanding implementation. Kindly
    explain these two kinds of implementations.

    I am using g++3.4.3 under Redhat Enterprise Linux on an Intel-x86
    based PC. Kindly let me know whether this implementation is a hosted
    implementation or a freestanding implementation.

    Thanks
    V.Subramanian
     
    , India, Dec 10, 2009
    #1
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  2. , India wrote:
    > The ISO/IEC-14882:2003 document mentions the following in the section
    > "1.4 Implementation Compliance" paragraph 7:
    >
    > "Two kinds of implementations of defined:hosted and freestanding. For
    > a hosted implementation, this International Standard defines the set
    > of available libraries. A freestanding implementation is one in which
    > the execution may take place without the benefit of an operating
    > system, and has an implementation-defined set of libraries that
    > includes certain language-support libraries(17.4.1.3)"
    >
    > From the above definition, I am unable to understand what is a hosted
    > implementation and and what is a freestanding implementation. Kindly
    > explain these two kinds of implementations.
    >
    > I am using g++3.4.3 under Redhat Enterprise Linux on an Intel-x86
    > based PC. Kindly let me know whether this implementation is a hosted
    > implementation or a freestanding implementation.


    Hosted implementation: running on (or under) an operating system. Your
    computer has an independent operating system, so the implementation is
    indeed a hosted one. Also, the resulting executable is going to be
    hosted as well since it's not capable of running on a computer without
    an operating system.

    V
    --
    Please remove capital 'A's when replying by e-mail
    I do not respond to top-posted replies, please don't ask
     
    Victor Bazarov, Dec 10, 2009
    #2
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  3. , India

    James Kanze Guest

    On Dec 10, 2:41 pm, Victor Bazarov <> wrote:
    > , India wrote:
    > > The ISO/IEC-14882:2003 document mentions the following in the section
    > > "1.4 Implementation Compliance" paragraph 7:


    > > "Two kinds of implementations of defined:hosted and
    > > freestanding. For a hosted implementation, this
    > > International Standard defines the set of available
    > > libraries. A freestanding implementation is one in which the
    > > execution may take place without the benefit of an operating
    > > system, and has an implementation-defined set of libraries
    > > that includes certain language-support libraries(17.4.1.3)"


    > > From the above definition, I am unable to understand what is
    > > a hosted implementation and and what is a freestanding
    > > implementation. Kindly explain these two kinds of
    > > implementations.


    > > I am using g++3.4.3 under Redhat Enterprise Linux on an
    > > Intel-x86 based PC. Kindly let me know whether this
    > > implementation is a hosted implementation or a freestanding
    > > implementation.


    > Hosted implementation: running on (or under) an operating
    > system. Your computer has an independent operating system, so
    > the implementation is indeed a hosted one. Also, the
    > resulting executable is going to be hosted as well since it's
    > not capable of running on a computer without an operating
    > system.


    That's certainly the intent: that a freestanding implementation
    can run without the underlying support of an operating system,
    say by being burned into a PROM. There are, however, some
    differences between the two languages: a freestanding system
    uses an implementation defined means of start-up, rather than
    main; a freestanding system might require you to provide a
    function called _tmain, for example, rather than main, and it
    might provide the argument list in wchar_t rather than char.
    And while the intent is to support systems without an OS, the
    freestanding implementation can place pretty much any
    requirements on the environment that it wants.

    --
    James Kanze
     
    James Kanze, Dec 10, 2009
    #3
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