How do I Use DPAPI to Encrypt and Decrypt Data (C#/VB.NET)?

Discussion in 'ASP .Net Security' started by anonieko@hotmail.com, Mar 16, 2005.

  1. Guest

    How To: Use DPAPI to Encrypt and Decrypt Data (C#/VB.NET)

    The code below demonstrates how to call Data Protection API (DPAPI)
    functions CryptProtectData and CryptUnprotectData to encrypt and
    decrypt data. The code sample is provided in C# and Visual Basic.NET.

    Introduction
    DPAPI functions encrypt and decrypt data using the Triple-DES
    algorithm. In addition to encryption and decryption, the API handles
    key generation and protection. DPAPI can generate two types of
    encryption keys: user- or machine-specific (these key types are
    commonly referred to as user store and machine store). User store and
    machine store are mutually exclusive; this means that you cannot
    combine a user-specific key with machine-specific key in one DPAPI
    call.

    DPAPI with user store
    When making DPAPI calls with user-specific keys, encryption and
    decryption must be performed by the same user (i.e. the identity under
    which the application runs). Applications calling DPAPI functions with
    user-specific keys must run with loaded user profiles of Windows®
    domain or local accounts; they cannot use the profiles of the built-in
    system accounts, such as LocalSystem, ASPNET, IUSR_MachineName, etc.
    The user profile must be created on the system where DPAPI calls are
    made, which normally requires the user to log on to the system
    interactively at least once. IMPORTANT: ASP.NET applications and other
    programs running under the built-in system accounts, such as Windows®
    services running as LocalSystem, cannot use DPAPI with user-specific
    keys.

    DPAPI with machine store
    When making DPAPI calls with machine-specific keys, encryption and
    decryption can be performed by any user or application as long as both
    operations are executed on the same computer. Any application -
    including ASP.NET - can use DPAPI with machine-specific keys. It is
    worth noting that this option is not secure, because it allows a
    malicious application installed on a system to decrypt any data
    encrypted by other applications on the same system using DPAPI with
    machine-specific keys.

    Secondary entropy
    When an application calls the DPAPI encryption function, it can specify
    an optional secondary entropy ("secret" bytes) which will have to be
    provided by an application attempting to decrypt data. The secondary
    entropy can be used with either user- or machine-specific keys. It must
    be protected.

    Data description
    When an application calls the DPAPI encryption function, it can specify
    an optional data description, which will be returned by the DPAPI
    decryption routine.

    More info
    For additional information about using DPAPI in .NET, check Building
    Secure ASP.NET Applications, which provides a brief description of
    DPAPI and several code samples. For a detailed overview of DPAPI, read
    the Windows Data Protection article.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    C# code

    [printer-friendly version] [code output]
    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    // SAMPLE: Encryption and decryption using DPAPI functions.
    //
    // To run this sample, create a new Visual C# project using the Console
    // Application template and replace the contents of the Class1.cs file
    // with the code below.
    //
    // THIS CODE AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
    ANY
    // KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE
    // IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A
    PARTICULAR
    // PURPOSE.
    //
    // Copyright (C) 2003. Obviex(TM). All rights reserved.
    //
    using System;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Runtime.InteropServices;
    using System.ComponentModel;

    /// <summary>
    /// Encrypts and decrypts data using DPAPI functions.
    /// </summary>
    public class DPAPI
    {
    // Wrapper for DPAPI CryptProtectData function.
    [DllImport( "crypt32.dll",
    SetLastError=true,
    CharSet=System.Runtime.InteropServices.CharSet.Auto)]
    private static extern
    bool CryptProtectData( ref DATA_BLOB pPlainText,
    string szDescription,
    ref DATA_BLOB pEntropy,
    IntPtr pReserved,
    ref CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT pPrompt,
    int dwFlags,
    ref DATA_BLOB pCipherText);

    // Wrapper for DPAPI CryptUnprotectData function.
    [DllImport( "crypt32.dll",
    SetLastError=true,
    CharSet=System.Runtime.InteropServices.CharSet.Auto)]
    private static extern
    bool CryptUnprotectData(ref DATA_BLOB pCipherText,
    ref string pszDescription,
    ref DATA_BLOB pEntropy,
    IntPtr pReserved,
    ref CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT pPrompt,
    int dwFlags,
    ref DATA_BLOB pPlainText);

    // BLOB structure used to pass data to DPAPI functions.
    [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet=CharSet.Unicode)]
    internal struct DATA_BLOB
    {
    public int cbData;
    public IntPtr pbData;
    }

    // Prompt structure to be used for required parameters.
    [StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet=CharSet.Unicode)]
    internal struct CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT
    {
    public int cbSize;
    public int dwPromptFlags;
    public IntPtr hwndApp;
    public string szPrompt;
    }

    // Wrapper for the NULL handle or pointer.
    static private IntPtr NullPtr = ((IntPtr)((int)(0)));

    // DPAPI key initialization flags.
    private const int CRYPTPROTECT_UI_FORBIDDEN = 0x1;
    private const int CRYPTPROTECT_LOCAL_MACHINE = 0x4;

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes empty prompt structure.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="ps">
    /// Prompt parameter (which we do not actually need).
    /// </param>
    private static void InitPrompt(ref CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT ps)
    {
    ps.cbSize = Marshal.SizeOf(
    typeof(CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT));
    ps.dwPromptFlags= 0;
    ps.hwndApp = NullPtr;
    ps.szPrompt = null;
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Initializes a BLOB structure from a byte array.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="data">
    /// Original data in a byte array format.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="blob">
    /// Returned blob structure.
    /// </param>
    private static void InitBLOB(byte[] data, ref DATA_BLOB blob)
    {
    // Allocate memory for the BLOB data.
    blob.pbData = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(data.Length);

    // Make sure that memory allocation was successful.
    if (blob.pbData == IntPtr.Zero)
    throw new Exception(
    "Unable to allocate data buffer for BLOB structure.");

    // Specify number of bytes in the BLOB.
    blob.cbData = data.Length;

    // Copy data from original source to the BLOB structure.
    Marshal.Copy(data, 0, blob.pbData, data.Length);
    }

    // Flag indicating the type of key. DPAPI terminology refers to
    // key types as user store or machine store.
    public enum KeyType {UserKey = 1, MachineKey};

    // It is reasonable to set default key type to user key.
    private static KeyType defaultKeyType = KeyType.UserKey;

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    /// string value with a user-specific key. This function does not
    /// specify data description and additional entropy.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="plainText">
    /// Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    /// </returns>
    public static string Encrypt(string plainText)
    {
    return Encrypt(defaultKeyType, plainText, String.Empty,
    String.Empty);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    /// string value. This function does not specify data description
    /// and additional entropy.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="keyType">
    /// Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    /// specified, any application running under the same user account
    /// as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    /// Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    /// computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    /// Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    /// for decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="plainText">
    /// Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    /// </returns>
    public static string Encrypt(KeyType keyType, string plainText)
    {
    return Encrypt(keyType, plainText, String.Empty,
    String.Empty);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    /// string value. This function does not specify data description.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="keyType">
    /// Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    /// specified, any application running under the same user account
    /// as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    /// Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    /// computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    /// Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    /// for decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="plainText">
    /// Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="entropy">
    /// Optional entropy which - if specified - will be required to
    /// perform decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    /// </returns>
    public static string Encrypt(KeyType keyType,
    string plainText,
    string entropy)
    {
    return Encrypt(keyType, plainText, entropy, String.Empty);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    /// string value.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="keyType">
    /// Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    /// specified, any application running under the same user account
    /// as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    /// Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    /// computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    /// Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    /// for decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="plainText">
    /// Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="entropy">
    /// Optional entropy which - if specified - will be required to
    /// perform decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="description">
    /// Optional description of data to be encrypted. If this value is
    /// specified, it will be stored along with encrypted data and
    /// returned as a separate value during decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    /// </returns>
    public static string Encrypt(KeyType keyType,
    string plainText,
    string entropy,
    string description)
    {
    // Make sure that parameters are valid.
    if (plainText == null) plainText = String.Empty;
    if (entropy == null) entropy = String.Empty;

    // Call encryption routine and convert returned bytes into
    // a base64-encoded value.
    return Convert.ToBase64String(
    Encrypt(keyType,
    Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(plainText),
    Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(entropy),
    description));
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt an array of
    /// plaintext bytes.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="keyType">
    /// Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    /// specified, any application running under the same user account
    /// as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    /// Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    /// computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    /// Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    /// for decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="plainTextBytes">
    /// Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="entropyBytes">
    /// Optional entropy which - if specified - will be required to
    /// perform decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="description">
    /// Optional description of data to be encrypted. If this value is
    /// specified, it will be stored along with encrypted data and
    /// returned as a separate value during decryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Encrypted value.
    /// </returns>
    public static byte[] Encrypt(KeyType keyType,
    byte[] plainTextBytes,
    byte[] entropyBytes,
    string description)
    {
    // Make sure that parameters are valid.
    if (plainTextBytes == null) plainTextBytes = new byte[0];
    if (entropyBytes == null) entropyBytes = new byte[0];
    if (description == null) description = String.Empty;

    // Create BLOBs to hold data.
    DATA_BLOB plainTextBlob = new DATA_BLOB();
    DATA_BLOB cipherTextBlob = new DATA_BLOB();
    DATA_BLOB entropyBlob = new DATA_BLOB();

    // We only need prompt structure because it is a required
    // parameter.
    CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT prompt =
    new CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT();
    InitPrompt(ref prompt);

    try
    {
    // Convert plaintext bytes into a BLOB structure.
    try
    {
    InitBLOB(plainTextBytes, ref plainTextBlob);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    throw new Exception(
    "Cannot initialize plaintext BLOB.", ex);
    }

    // Convert entropy bytes into a BLOB structure.
    try
    {
    InitBLOB(entropyBytes, ref entropyBlob);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    throw new Exception(
    "Cannot initialize entropy BLOB.", ex);
    }

    // Disable any types of UI.
    int flags = CRYPTPROTECT_UI_FORBIDDEN;

    // When using machine-specific key, set up machine flag.
    if (keyType == KeyType.MachineKey)
    flags |= CRYPTPROTECT_LOCAL_MACHINE;

    // Call DPAPI to encrypt data.
    bool success = CryptProtectData(ref plainTextBlob,
    description,
    ref entropyBlob,
    IntPtr.Zero,
    ref prompt,
    flags,
    ref cipherTextBlob);
    // Check the result.
    if (!success)
    {
    // If operation failed, retrieve last Win32 error.
    int errCode = Marshal.GetLastWin32Error();

    // Win32Exception will contain error message
    corresponding
    // to the Windows error code.
    throw new Exception(
    "CryptProtectData failed.", new
    Win32Exception(errCode));
    }

    // Allocate memory to hold ciphertext.
    byte[] cipherTextBytes = new byte[cipherTextBlob.cbData];

    // Copy ciphertext from the BLOB to a byte array.
    Marshal.Copy(cipherTextBlob.pbData,
    cipherTextBytes,
    0,
    cipherTextBlob.cbData);

    // Return the result.
    return cipherTextBytes;
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    throw new Exception("DPAPI was unable to encrypt data.",
    ex);
    }
    // Free all memory allocated for BLOBs.
    finally
    {
    if (plainTextBlob.pbData != IntPtr.Zero)
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(plainTextBlob.pbData);

    if (cipherTextBlob.pbData != IntPtr.Zero)
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(cipherTextBlob.pbData);

    if (entropyBlob.pbData != IntPtr.Zero)
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(entropyBlob.pbData);
    }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    /// This function does not use additional entropy and does not
    /// return data description.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cipherText">
    /// Encrypted data formatted as a base64-encoded string.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Decrypted data returned as a UTF-8 string.
    /// </returns>
    /// <remarks>
    /// When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    /// type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    /// machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    /// the signature of encrypted data.
    /// </remarks>
    public static string Decrypt(string cipherText)
    {
    string description;

    return Decrypt(cipherText, String.Empty, out description);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    /// This function does not use additional entropy.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cipherText">
    /// Encrypted data formatted as a base64-encoded string.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="description">
    /// Returned description of data specified during encryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Decrypted data returned as a UTF-8 string.
    /// </returns>
    /// <remarks>
    /// When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    /// type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    /// machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    /// the signature of encrypted data.
    /// </remarks>
    public static string Decrypt( string cipherText,
    out string description)
    {
    return Decrypt(cipherText, String.Empty, out description);
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cipherText">
    /// Encrypted data formatted as a base64-encoded string.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="entropy">
    /// Optional entropy, which is required if it was specified during
    /// encryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="description">
    /// Returned description of data specified during encryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Decrypted data returned as a UTF-8 string.
    /// </returns>
    /// <remarks>
    /// When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    /// type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    /// machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    /// the signature of encrypted data.
    /// </remarks>
    public static string Decrypt( string cipherText,
    string entropy,
    out string description)
    {
    // Make sure that parameters are valid.
    if (entropy == null) entropy = String.Empty;

    return Encoding.UTF8.GetString(
    Decrypt( Convert.FromBase64String(cipherText),
    Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(entropy),
    out description));
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    /// </summary>
    /// <param name="cipherTextBytes">
    /// Encrypted data.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="entropyBytes">
    /// Optional entropy, which is required if it was specified during
    /// encryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <param name="description">
    /// Returned description of data specified during encryption.
    /// </param>
    /// <returns>
    /// Decrypted data bytes.
    /// </returns>
    /// <remarks>
    /// When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    /// type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    /// machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    /// the signature of encrypted data.
    /// </remarks>
    public static byte[] Decrypt( byte[] cipherTextBytes,
    byte[] entropyBytes,
    out string description)
    {
    // Create BLOBs to hold data.
    DATA_BLOB plainTextBlob = new DATA_BLOB();
    DATA_BLOB cipherTextBlob = new DATA_BLOB();
    DATA_BLOB entropyBlob = new DATA_BLOB();

    // We only need prompt structure because it is a required
    // parameter.
    CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT prompt =
    new CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT();
    InitPrompt(ref prompt);

    // Initialize description string.
    description = String.Empty;

    try
    {
    // Convert ciphertext bytes into a BLOB structure.
    try
    {
    InitBLOB(cipherTextBytes, ref cipherTextBlob);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    throw new Exception(
    "Cannot initialize ciphertext BLOB.", ex);
    }

    // Convert entropy bytes into a BLOB structure.
    try
    {
    InitBLOB(entropyBytes, ref entropyBlob);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    throw new Exception(
    "Cannot initialize entropy BLOB.", ex);
    }

    // Disable any types of UI. CryptUnprotectData does not
    // mention CRYPTPROTECT_LOCAL_MACHINE flag in the list of
    // supported flags so we will not set it up.
    int flags = CRYPTPROTECT_UI_FORBIDDEN;

    // Call DPAPI to decrypt data.
    bool success = CryptUnprotectData(ref cipherTextBlob,
    ref description,
    ref entropyBlob,
    IntPtr.Zero,
    ref prompt,
    flags,
    ref plainTextBlob);

    // Check the result.
    if (!success)
    {
    // If operation failed, retrieve last Win32 error.
    int errCode = Marshal.GetLastWin32Error();

    // Win32Exception will contain error message
    corresponding
    // to the Windows error code.
    throw new Exception(
    "CryptUnprotectData failed.", new
    Win32Exception(errCode));
    }

    // Allocate memory to hold plaintext.
    byte[] plainTextBytes = new byte[plainTextBlob.cbData];

    // Copy ciphertext from the BLOB to a byte array.
    Marshal.Copy(plainTextBlob.pbData,
    plainTextBytes,
    0,
    plainTextBlob.cbData);

    // Return the result.
    return plainTextBytes;
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    throw new Exception("DPAPI was unable to decrypt data.",
    ex);
    }
    // Free all memory allocated for BLOBs.
    finally
    {
    if (plainTextBlob.pbData != IntPtr.Zero)
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(plainTextBlob.pbData);

    if (cipherTextBlob.pbData != IntPtr.Zero)
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(cipherTextBlob.pbData);

    if (entropyBlob.pbData != IntPtr.Zero)
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(entropyBlob.pbData);
    }
    }
    }

    /// <summary>
    /// Demonstrates the use of DPAPI functions to encrypt and decrypt
    data.
    /// </summary>
    public class DPAPITest
    {
    /// <summary>
    /// The main entry point for the application.
    /// </summary>
    [STAThread]
    static void Main(string[] args)
    {
    try
    {
    string text = "Hello, world!";
    string entropy = null;
    string description;

    Console.WriteLine("Plaintext: {0}\r\n", text);

    // Call DPAPI to encrypt data with user-specific key.
    string encrypted = DPAPI.Encrypt( DPAPI.KeyType.UserKey,
    text,
    entropy,
    "My Data");
    Console.WriteLine("Encrypted: {0}\r\n", encrypted);

    // Call DPAPI to decrypt data.
    string decrypted = DPAPI.Decrypt( encrypted,
    entropy,
    out description);
    Console.WriteLine("Decrypted: {0} <<<{1}>>>\r\n",
    decrypted, description);
    }
    catch (Exception ex)
    {
    while (ex != null)
    {
    Console.WriteLine(ex.Message);
    ex = ex.InnerException;
    }
    }
    }
    }
    //
    // END OF FILE
    ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
    ^ Back to top



    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    VB.NET code

    [printer-friendly version] [code output]
    '''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''
    ' SAMPLE: Encryption and decryption using DPAPI functions.
    '
    ' To run this sample, create a new Visual Basic.NET project using the
    Console
    ' Application template and replace the contents of the Module1.vb file
    with
    ' the code below.
    '
    ' THIS CODE AND INFORMATION IS PROVIDED "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY
    ' KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE
    ' IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND/OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
    ' PURPOSE.
    '
    ' Copyright (C) 2005. Obviex(TM). All rights reserved.
    '
    Imports System
    Imports System.Text
    Imports System.Runtime.InteropServices
    Imports System.ComponentModel
    Imports Microsoft.VisualBasic

    Public Module Module1

    ' <summary>
    ' Encrypts and decrypts data using DPAPI functions.
    ' </summary>
    Public Class DPAPI

    ' Wrapper for DPAPI CryptProtectData function.
    <DllImport("crypt32.dll", SetLastError:=True,
    CharSet:=CharSet.Auto)> _
    Private Shared Function CryptProtectData _
    ( _
    ByRef pPlainText As DATA_BLOB, _
    ByVal szDescription As String, _
    ByRef pEntropy As DATA_BLOB, _
    ByVal pReserved As IntPtr, _
    ByRef pPrompt As CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT, _
    ByVal dwFlags As Integer, _
    ByRef pCipherText As DATA_BLOB _
    ) As Boolean
    End Function

    ' Wrapper for DPAPI CryptUnprotectData function.
    <DllImport("crypt32.dll", SetLastError:=True,
    CharSet:=CharSet.Auto)> _
    Private Shared Function CryptUnprotectData _
    ( _
    ByRef pCipherText As DATA_BLOB, _
    ByRef pszDescription As String, _
    ByRef pEntropy As DATA_BLOB, _
    ByVal pReserved As IntPtr, _
    ByRef pPrompt As CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT, _
    ByVal dwFlags As Integer, _
    ByRef pPlainText As DATA_BLOB _
    ) As Boolean
    End Function

    ' BLOB structure used to pass data to DPAPI functions.
    <StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet:=CharSet.Unicode)> _
    Friend Structure DATA_BLOB
    Public cbData As Integer
    Public pbData As IntPtr
    End Structure

    ' Prompt structure to be used for required parameters.
    <StructLayout(LayoutKind.Sequential, CharSet:=CharSet.Unicode)> _
    Friend Structure CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT
    Public cbSize As Integer
    Public dwPromptFlags As Integer
    Public hwndApp As IntPtr
    Public szPrompt As String
    End Structure

    ' DPAPI key initialization flags.
    Private Const CRYPTPROTECT_UI_FORBIDDEN As Integer = 1
    Private Const CRYPTPROTECT_LOCAL_MACHINE As Integer = 4

    ' <summary>
    ' Initializes empty prompt structure.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="ps">
    ' Prompt parameter (which we do not actually need).
    ' </param>
    Private Shared Sub InitPrompt _
    ( _
    ByRef ps As CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT _
    )
    ps.cbSize =
    Marshal.SizeOf(GetType(CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT))
    ps.dwPromptFlags = 0
    ps.hwndApp = IntPtr.Zero
    ps.szPrompt = Nothing
    End Sub

    ' <summary>
    ' Initializes a BLOB structure from a byte array.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="data">
    ' Original data in a byte array format.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="blob">
    ' Returned blob structure.
    ' </param>
    Private Shared Sub InitBLOB _
    ( _
    ByVal data As Byte(), _
    ByRef blob As DATA_BLOB _
    )
    ' Allocate memory for the BLOB data.
    blob.pbData = Marshal.AllocHGlobal(data.Length)

    ' Make sure that memory allocation was successful.
    If blob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero) Then
    Throw New Exception( _
    "Unable to allocate data buffer for BLOB
    structure.")
    End If

    ' Specify number of bytes in the BLOB.
    blob.cbData = data.Length
    Marshal.Copy(data, 0, blob.pbData, data.Length)
    End Sub

    ' Flag indicating the type of key. DPAPI terminology refers to
    ' key types as user store or machine store.
    Public Enum KeyType
    UserKey = 1
    MachineKey
    End Enum

    ' It is reasonable to set default key type to user key.
    Private Shared defaultKeyType As KeyType = KeyType.UserKey

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    ' string value with a user-specific key. This function does not
    ' specify data description and additional entropy.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="plainText">
    ' Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    ' </returns>
    Public Shared Function Encrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal plainText As String _
    ) As String
    Return Encrypt(defaultKeyType, plainText, String.Empty,
    String.Empty)
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    ' string value. This function does not specify data description
    ' and additional entropy.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="keyType">
    ' Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    ' specified, any application running under the same user account
    ' as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    ' Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    ' computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    ' Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    ' for decryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="plainText">
    ' Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    ' </returns>
    Public Shared Function Encrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal keyType As KeyType, _
    ByVal plainText As String _
    ) As String
    Return Encrypt(keyType, plainText, String.Empty, String.Empty)
    End Function

    Public Shared Function Encrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal keyType As KeyType, _
    ByVal plainText As String, _
    ByVal entropy As String _
    ) As String
    Return Encrypt(keyType, plainText, entropy, String.Empty)
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt a plaintext
    ' string value. This function does not specify data description.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="keyType">
    ' Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    ' specified, any application running under the same user account
    ' as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    ' Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    ' computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    ' Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    ' for decryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="plainText">
    ' Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="entropy">
    ' Optional entropy which - if specified - will be required to
    ' perform decryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Encrypted value in a base64-encoded format.
    ' </returns>
    Public Shared Function Encrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal keyType As KeyType, _
    ByVal plainText As String, _
    ByVal entropy As String, _
    ByVal description As String _
    ) As String
    If plainText Is Nothing Then
    plainText = String.Empty
    End If
    If entropy Is Nothing Then
    entropy = String.Empty
    End If
    Return Convert.ToBase64String( _
    Encrypt(keyType, _
    Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(plainText), _
    Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(entropy), _
    description))
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptProtectData function to encrypt an array of
    ' plaintext bytes.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="keyType">
    ' Defines type of encryption key to use. When user key is
    ' specified, any application running under the same user account
    ' as the one making this call, will be able to decrypt data.
    ' Machine key will allow any application running on the same
    ' computer where data were encrypted to perform decryption.
    ' Note: If optional entropy is specifed, it will be required
    ' for decryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="plainTextBytes">
    ' Plaintext data to be encrypted.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="entropyBytes">
    ' Optional entropy which - if specified - will be required to
    ' perform decryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="description">
    ' Optional description of data to be encrypted. If this value is
    ' specified, it will be stored along with encrypted data and
    ' returned as a separate value during decryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Encrypted value.
    ' </returns>
    Public Shared Function Encrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal keyType As KeyType, _
    ByVal plainTextBytes As Byte(), _
    ByVal entropyBytes As Byte(), _
    ByVal description As String _
    ) As Byte()
    ' Make sure that parameters are valid.
    If plainTextBytes Is Nothing Then
    plainTextBytes = New Byte(0){}
    End If

    If entropyBytes Is Nothing Then
    entropyBytes = New Byte(0){}
    End If

    If description Is Nothing Then
    description = String.Empty
    End If

    ' Create BLOBs to hold data.
    Dim plainTextBlob As DATA_BLOB = New DATA_BLOB
    Dim cipherTextBlob As DATA_BLOB = New DATA_BLOB
    Dim entropyBlob As DATA_BLOB = New DATA_BLOB

    ' We only need prompt structure because it is a required
    ' parameter.
    Dim prompt As _
    CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT = New
    CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT
    InitPrompt(prompt)

    Try
    ' Convert plaintext bytes into a BLOB structure.
    Try
    InitBLOB(plainTextBytes, plainTextBlob)
    Catch ex As Exception
    Throw New Exception("Cannot initialize plaintext
    BLOB.", ex)
    End Try

    ' Convert entropy bytes into a BLOB structure.
    Try
    InitBLOB(entropyBytes, entropyBlob)
    Catch ex As Exception
    Throw New Exception("Cannot initialize entropy BLOB.",
    ex)
    End Try

    ' Disable any types of UI.
    Dim flags As Integer = CRYPTPROTECT_UI_FORBIDDEN

    ' When using machine-specific key, set up machine flag.
    If keyType = KeyType.MachineKey Then
    flags = flags Or (CRYPTPROTECT_LOCAL_MACHINE)
    End If

    ' Call DPAPI to encrypt data.
    Dim success As Boolean = CryptProtectData( _
    plainTextBlob, _
    description, _
    entropyBlob, _
    IntPtr.Zero, _
    prompt, _
    flags, _
    cipherTextBlob)

    ' Check the result.
    If Not success Then
    ' If operation failed, retrieve last Win32 error.
    Dim errCode As Integer = Marshal.GetLastWin32Error()

    ' Win32Exception will contain error message
    corresponding
    ' to the Windows error code.
    Throw New Exception("CryptProtectData failed.", _
    New Win32Exception(errCode))
    End If

    ' Allocate memory to hold ciphertext.
    Dim cipherTextBytes(cipherTextBlob.cbData) As Byte

    ' Copy ciphertext from the BLOB to a byte array.
    Marshal.Copy(cipherTextBlob.pbData, cipherTextBytes, 0, _
    cipherTextBlob.cbData)

    ' Return the result.
    Return cipherTextBytes
    Catch ex As Exception
    Throw New Exception("DPAPI was unable to encrypt data.",
    ex)
    Finally
    If Not(plainTextBlob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero)) Then
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(plainTextBlob.pbData)
    End If

    If Not (cipherTextBlob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero)) Then
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(cipherTextBlob.pbData)
    End If

    If Not(entropyBlob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero)) Then
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(entropyBlob.pbData)
    End If
    End Try
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    ' This function does not use additional entropy and does not
    ' return data description.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="cipherText">
    ' Encrypted data formatted as a base64-encoded string.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Decrypted data returned as a UTF-8 string.
    ' </returns>
    ' <remarks>
    ' When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    ' type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    ' machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    ' the signature of encrypted data.
    ' </remarks>
    Public Shared Function Decrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal cipherText As String _
    ) As String
    Dim description As String
    Return Decrypt(cipherText, String.Empty, description)
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    ' This function does not use additional entropy.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="cipherText">
    ' Encrypted data formatted as a base64-encoded string.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="description">
    ' Returned description of data specified during encryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Decrypted data returned as a UTF-8 string.
    ' </returns>
    ' <remarks>
    ' When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    ' type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    ' machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    ' the signature of encrypted data.
    ' </remarks>
    Public Shared Function Decrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal cipherText As String, _
    ByRef description As String _
    ) As String
    Return Decrypt(cipherText, String.Empty, description)
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="cipherText">
    ' Encrypted data formatted as a base64-encoded string.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="entropy">
    ' Optional entropy, which is required if it was specified during
    ' encryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="description">
    ' Returned description of data specified during encryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Decrypted data returned as a UTF-8 string.
    ' </returns>
    ' <remarks>
    ' When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    ' type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    ' machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    ' the signature of encrypted data.
    ' </remarks>
    Public Shared Function Decrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal cipherText As String, _
    ByVal entropy As String, _
    ByRef description As String _
    ) As String
    ' Make sure that parameters are valid.
    If entropy Is Nothing Then
    entropy = String.Empty
    End If

    Return Encoding.UTF8.GetString( _
    Decrypt(Convert.FromBase64String(cipherText), _
    Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(entropy), description))
    End Function

    ' <summary>
    ' Calls DPAPI CryptUnprotectData to decrypt ciphertext bytes.
    ' </summary>
    ' <param name="cipherTextBytes">
    ' Encrypted data.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="entropyBytes">
    ' Optional entropy, which is required if it was specified during
    ' encryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <param name="description">
    ' Returned description of data specified during encryption.
    ' </param>
    ' <returns>
    ' Decrypted data bytes.
    ' </returns>
    ' <remarks>
    ' When decrypting data, it is not necessary to specify which
    ' type of encryption key to use: user-specific or
    ' machine-specific; DPAPI will figure it out by looking at
    ' the signature of encrypted data.
    ' </remarks>
    Public Shared Function Decrypt _
    ( _
    ByVal cipherTextBytes As Byte(), _
    ByVal entropyBytes As Byte(), _
    ByRef description As String _
    ) As Byte()

    ' Create BLOBs to hold data.
    Dim plainTextBlob As DATA_BLOB = New DATA_BLOB
    Dim cipherTextBlob As DATA_BLOB = New DATA_BLOB
    Dim entropyBlob As DATA_BLOB = New DATA_BLOB

    ' We only need prompt structure because it is a required
    ' parameter.
    Dim prompt As _
    CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT = New
    CRYPTPROTECT_PROMPTSTRUCT
    InitPrompt(prompt)

    ' Initialize description string.
    description = String.Empty

    Try
    ' Convert ciphertext bytes into a BLOB structure.
    Try
    InitBLOB(cipherTextBytes, cipherTextBlob)
    Catch ex As Exception
    Throw New Exception("Cannot initialize ciphertext
    BLOB.", ex)
    End Try

    ' Convert entropy bytes into a BLOB structure.
    Try
    InitBLOB(entropyBytes, entropyBlob)
    Catch ex As Exception
    Throw New Exception("Cannot initialize entropy BLOB.",
    ex)
    End Try

    ' Disable any types of UI. CryptUnprotectData does not
    ' mention CRYPTPROTECT_LOCAL_MACHINE flag in the list of
    ' supported flags so we will not set it up.
    Dim flags As Integer = CRYPTPROTECT_UI_FORBIDDEN

    ' Call DPAPI to decrypt data.
    Dim success As Boolean = CryptUnprotectData( _
    cipherTextBlob, _
    description, _
    entropyBlob, _
    IntPtr.Zero, _
    prompt, _
    flags, _
    plainTextBlob)

    ' Check the result.
    If Not success Then
    ' If operation failed, retrieve last Win32 error.
    Dim errCode As Integer = Marshal.GetLastWin32Error()

    ' Win32Exception will contain error message
    corresponding
    ' to the Windows error code.
    Throw New Exception("CryptUnprotectData failed.", _
    New Win32Exception(errCode))
    End If

    ' Allocate memory to hold plaintext.
    Dim plainTextBytes(plainTextBlob.cbData) As Byte

    ' Copy ciphertext from the BLOB to a byte array.
    Marshal.Copy(plainTextBlob.pbData, plainTextBytes, 0, _
    plainTextBlob.cbData)

    ' Return the result.
    Return plainTextBytes
    Catch ex As Exception
    Throw New Exception("DPAPI was unable to decrypt data.",
    ex)
    ' Free all memory allocated for BLOBs.
    Finally
    If Not(plainTextBlob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero)) Then
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(plainTextBlob.pbData)
    End If

    If Not(cipherTextBlob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero)) Then
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(cipherTextBlob.pbData)
    End If

    If Not(entropyBlob.pbData.Equals(IntPtr.Zero)) Then
    Marshal.FreeHGlobal(entropyBlob.pbData)
    End If
    End Try
    End Function
    End Class

    ' <summary>
    ' The main entry point for the application.
    ' </summary>
    Sub Main(ByVal args As String())
    Try
    Dim text As String = "Hello, world!"
    Dim entropy As String = Nothing
    Dim description As String
    Dim encrypted As String
    Dim decrypted As String

    Console.WriteLine("Plaintext: {0}" & Chr(13) & Chr(10), text)

    ' Call DPAPI to encrypt data with user-specific key.
    encrypted = DPAPI.Encrypt( DPAPI.KeyType.UserKey, _
    text, entropy, "My Data")

    Console.WriteLine("Encrypted: {0}" & Chr(13) & Chr(10),
    encrypted)

    ' Call DPAPI to decrypt data.
    decrypted = DPAPI.Decrypt(encrypted, entropy, description)

    Console.WriteLine("Decrypted: {0} <<<{1}>>>" & Chr(13) &
    Chr(10), _
    decrypted, description)
    Catch ex As Exception
    While Not (ex Is Nothing)
    Console.WriteLine(ex.Message)
    ex = ex.InnerException
    End While
    End Try
    End Sub

    End Module
    '
    ' END OF FILE
    '''''''''''''''''
    , Mar 16, 2005
    #1
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