Passing Member Functions as Function Pointers

Discussion in 'C++' started by cps, Mar 17, 2006.

  1. cps

    cps Guest

    Hi,

    I'm a C programmer taking my first steps into the world of C++.

    I'm currently developing a C++ 3D graphics application using GLUT
    (OpenGL Utility Toolkit written in C) for the GUI components.

    The application is built around a "World" object that contains a "GUI"
    object that is a C++ wrapper around GLUT. What I'd like to do is pass a
    pointer to a member function in the World class to function in the GUI
    class.

    Here are the functions I'd like to pass:


    void World::Display()
    {
    /* clear all pixels */
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

    Do OpenGL stuff...
    }

    void World::Keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
    {
    cout << key << endl;

    Handle keyboard...
    }


    I'd like to pass these functions to the constructor of the GUI object
    as follows:


    p_GUI = new GUI(Display, Keyboard);


    I'm getting the following error:

    World.cpp(16) : error C2664: 'GUI::GUI(void (__cdecl *)(void),void
    (__cdecl *)(unsigned char,int,int))' : cannot convert parameter 1 from
    'void (void)' to 'void (__cdecl *)(void)'
    None of the functions with this name in scope match the target
    type

    I understand that (__cdecl *) is a calling convention. What I can't
    figure out is how to fix the syntax so that the code compiles.

    Any help with this (especially a simple example) would be very much
    appreciated.

    Cheers,

    Chris
     
    cps, Mar 17, 2006
    #1
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  2. cps

    Jim Langston Guest

    "cps" <> wrote in message
    news:...
    > Hi,
    >
    > I'm a C programmer taking my first steps into the world of C++.
    >
    > I'm currently developing a C++ 3D graphics application using GLUT
    > (OpenGL Utility Toolkit written in C) for the GUI components.
    >
    > The application is built around a "World" object that contains a "GUI"
    > object that is a C++ wrapper around GLUT. What I'd like to do is pass a
    > pointer to a member function in the World class to function in the GUI
    > class.
    >
    > Here are the functions I'd like to pass:
    >
    >
    > void World::Display()
    > {
    > /* clear all pixels */
    > glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
    >
    > Do OpenGL stuff...
    > }
    >
    > void World::Keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y)
    > {
    > cout << key << endl;
    >
    > Handle keyboard...
    > }
    >
    >
    > I'd like to pass these functions to the constructor of the GUI object
    > as follows:
    >
    >
    > p_GUI = new GUI(Display, Keyboard);


    I don't see your definition of GUI::GUI anywhere. What are your constructor
    parms?

    > I'm getting the following error:
    >
    > World.cpp(16) : error C2664: 'GUI::GUI(void (__cdecl *)(void),void
    > (__cdecl *)(unsigned char,int,int))' : cannot convert parameter 1 from
    > 'void (void)' to 'void (__cdecl *)(void)'
    > None of the functions with this name in scope match the target
    > type
    >
    > I understand that (__cdecl *) is a calling convention. What I can't
    > figure out is how to fix the syntax so that the code compiles.
    >
    > Any help with this (especially a simple example) would be very much
    > appreciated.
    >
    > Cheers,
    >
    > Chris
    >
     
    Jim Langston, Mar 18, 2006
    #2
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  3. cps

    cps Guest

    Here they are:


    // GUI.h

    #ifndef GUI_H
    #define GUI_H

    class GUI
    {
    public:
    GUI();
    GUI(void (*displayFunctionPtr)(), void
    (*keyboardFunctionPtr)(unsigned char key, int x, int y));
    ~GUI();

    private:
    };

    #endif


    GUI::GUI(void (*displayFunctionPtr)(), void
    (*keyboardFunctionPtr)(unsigned char key, int x, int y))
    {
    int argc = 0;
    char* argv[30];

    glutInit(&argc, argv);
    glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_DOUBLE | GLUT_RGB);
    glutInitWindowSize(250, 250);
    glutInitWindowPosition(100, 100);
    glutCreateWindow("Test");
    glClearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    glShadeModel(GL_FLAT);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glOrtho(0.0, 1.0, 0.0, 1.0, -1.0, 1.0);
    glutDisplayFunc(displayFunctionPtr);
    glutIdleFunc(displayFunctionPtr);
    glutKeyboardFunc(keyboardFunctionPtr);
    glutMainLoop();
    }
     
    cps, Mar 18, 2006
    #3
  4. cps

    Paul Guest

    Paul, Mar 18, 2006
    #4
  5. cps

    BobR Guest

    cps wrote in message ...
    >Here they are:
    >// GUI.h
    >#ifndef GUI_H
    >#define GUI_H
    >class GUI{ public:
    > GUI();
    > GUI(void (*displayFunctionPtr)(), void
    > (*keyboardFunctionPtr)(unsigned char key, int x, int y));
    > ~GUI();
    > private:
    > };
    >#endif
    >
    >GUI::GUI(void (*displayFunctionPtr)(), void
    > (*keyboardFunctionPtr)(unsigned char key, int x, int y)){
    > int argc = 0;
    > char* argv[30];
    > glutInit(&argc, argv);

    [snip]
    > glutDisplayFunc(displayFunctionPtr);
    > glutIdleFunc(displayFunctionPtr);
    > glutKeyboardFunc(keyboardFunctionPtr);
    > glutMainLoop();
    >}


    If Paul's suggestion doesn't help, try making the 'call-back' functions
    'static'. That worked for me in one Glut pgm I was playing with. See (google
    for) 'GlutMaster' [1]

    class World{
    public:
    static void Display();
    static void Keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y);
    };
    void World::Display(){
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT); // clear all pixels
    // Do OpenGL stuff...
    }
    void World::Keyboard(unsigned char key, int x, int y){
    cout << key << endl;
    // Handle keyboard...
    }

    [1] - might still be at URL: http://www.duke.edu/~stetten/GlutMaster/
    --
    Bob R
    POVrookie
     
    BobR, Mar 18, 2006
    #5
  6. cps

    Guest

    Thanks for the replies.

    The link to the "pointers-to-members" page should do the trick.

    Also, I tried making the member functions static. This worked, but then
    I couldn't access member variables.

    Cheers,

    Chris
     
    , Mar 18, 2006
    #6
  7. cps

    Guest

    I'm still having problems with this.

    I've had a look at the "pointers-to-members" page. It says that

    >Normal C functions can be thought of as having a different calling convention from >member functions, so the types of their pointers (pointer-to-member-function vs. >pointer-to-function) are different and incompatible. C++ introduces a new type of >pointer, called a pointer-to-member, which can be invoked only by providing an object.


    Does this mean that the only way I can get this to work is by passing
    the object that contains the member functions? In this case, do I need
    to pass function pointers at all, as I can access the functions via the
    object?

    As I mentioned above, I have a World object that contains a GUI object.
    The GUI object requires a pointer to a member function ("Display") in
    the World object. Is there a better way to do this?

    Cheers,

    Chris


    wrote:
    > Thanks for the replies.
    >
    > The link to the "pointers-to-members" page should do the trick.
    >
    > Also, I tried making the member functions static. This worked, but then
    > I couldn't access member variables.
    >
    > Cheers,
    >
    > Chris
     
    , Mar 18, 2006
    #7
  8. cps

    Paul Guest

    <> wrote in message
    news:...
    > Does this mean that the only way I can get this to work is by passing
    > the object that contains the member functions? In this case, do I need
    > to pass function pointers at all, as I can access the functions via the
    > object?
    >


    If there is a void* parameter that is provided for you as a "user defined
    data" parameter, you can use the void* as the pointer to the object, and
    then retrieve it again when the function gets called.

    Of course, the instance of the object must still exist.

    Note that this is just one of many ways to do this. The bottom line is that
    you have an object instance, and when the API executes the callback, you
    retrieve that instance in some way so you can get the member data -- this is
    where you have to be creative. That's what it all boils down to.

    How to retrieve the instance can be accomplished in many different ways.
    The simplest being making a global object (as the C++ FAQ illustrates), or
    you can get fancy with maps and handles (this is usually done for OO GUI
    classes), or you can use the void* option if the API's callback allows this.

    - Paul
     
    Paul, Mar 18, 2006
    #8
  9. cps

    BobR Guest

    wrote in message ...
    >
    >Also, I tried making the member functions static. This worked, but then
    >I couldn't access member variables.
    >
    >Cheers,
    >Chris


    I ran into that too. Make the variables 'static' so you can access them from
    'Display' and 'Keyboard'. There should not be very many. A static var can be
    accessed by non-static member functions.

    Otherwise, you need to post a lot more of your code[1] AND the exact errors
    you are getting, so the experts in this NG can figure it out.

    [1] - less the OpenGL stuff that does not apply to the problem
    (glClearColor(), glShadeModel(), etc.). You should separate initialize and
    draw into to different functions anyway, it will make a difference when you
    animate. Example below is to show you can access static vars from non-static
    member functions, not how to do OpenGL (which is off-topic in this NG).

    // - in class declaration, define outside -
    // ---------------------------------------
    static GLfloat RotAngle;
    static float xspeed; // X Rotation Speed
    static float yspeed; // Y Rotation Speed
    static GLfloat AngleX; // Angle For Rotation (deg)
    static GLfloat AngleY; // Angle For Rotation (deg)
    // ---------------------------------------
    // - non-static member function -
    // ===== DrawGLScene ===== wxWidgets version
    void BobGLCanvas::DrawGLScene(){ // Drawing done here
    wxClientDC dc( this ); // no 'this' if static
    if( !GetContext() ){ return;}
    SetCurrent();
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    glLoadIdentity(); // Reset View
    gluLookAt(0.0, 0.0, ZoomZ, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); //GLfloat
    ZoomZ(1.50F);
    glLightfv( GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, lightPosition ); // Set light0
    position
    if( xspeed || yspeed ){
    glRotatef(AngleY*yspeed, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); // Rotate On Y axis
    glRotatef(AngleX*xspeed, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); // Rotate On X axis
    }
    else{
    glRotatef(RotAngle, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); // Rotate on Y
    axis
    }
    Material(MatNumber); // Material(2) default
    glCallList( listRockNum + listOffset); // Draw the Rock
    SwapBuffers(); // Swap Buffers to make rendering visible
    return;
    } // DrawGLScene()
    //---------------------------------------------
    --
    Bob R
    POVrookie
     
    BobR, Mar 18, 2006
    #9
  10. cps

    Guest

    I've implemented the "static" approach and it seems to be working.

    Cheers,

    Chris


    BobR wrote:
    > wrote in message ...
    > >
    > >Also, I tried making the member functions static. This worked, but then
    > >I couldn't access member variables.
    > >
    > >Cheers,
    > >Chris

    >
    > I ran into that too. Make the variables 'static' so you can access them from
    > 'Display' and 'Keyboard'. There should not be very many. A static var can be
    > accessed by non-static member functions.
    >
    > Otherwise, you need to post a lot more of your code[1] AND the exact errors
    > you are getting, so the experts in this NG can figure it out.
    >
    > [1] - less the OpenGL stuff that does not apply to the problem
    > (glClearColor(), glShadeModel(), etc.). You should separate initialize and
    > draw into to different functions anyway, it will make a difference when you
    > animate. Example below is to show you can access static vars from non-static
    > member functions, not how to do OpenGL (which is off-topic in this NG).
    >
    > // - in class declaration, define outside -
    > // ---------------------------------------
    > static GLfloat RotAngle;
    > static float xspeed; // X Rotation Speed
    > static float yspeed; // Y Rotation Speed
    > static GLfloat AngleX; // Angle For Rotation (deg)
    > static GLfloat AngleY; // Angle For Rotation (deg)
    > // ---------------------------------------
    > // - non-static member function -
    > // ===== DrawGLScene ===== wxWidgets version
    > void BobGLCanvas::DrawGLScene(){ // Drawing done here
    > wxClientDC dc( this ); // no 'this' if static
    > if( !GetContext() ){ return;}
    > SetCurrent();
    > glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    > glLoadIdentity(); // Reset View
    > gluLookAt(0.0, 0.0, ZoomZ, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 1.0, 0.0); //GLfloat
    > ZoomZ(1.50F);
    > glLightfv( GL_LIGHT0, GL_POSITION, lightPosition ); // Set light0
    > position
    > if( xspeed || yspeed ){
    > glRotatef(AngleY*yspeed, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); // Rotate On Y axis
    > glRotatef(AngleX*xspeed, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f); // Rotate On X axis
    > }
    > else{
    > glRotatef(RotAngle, 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f); // Rotate on Y
    > axis
    > }
    > Material(MatNumber); // Material(2) default
    > glCallList( listRockNum + listOffset); // Draw the Rock
    > SwapBuffers(); // Swap Buffers to make rendering visible
    > return;
    > } // DrawGLScene()
    > //---------------------------------------------
    > --
    > Bob R
    > POVrookie
     
    , Mar 18, 2006
    #10
  11. Personally, I abandoned GLUT and switched to SDL :)

    Callbacks suck a lot!
     
    Diego Martins, Mar 21, 2006
    #11
  12. Personally, I abandoned GLUT and switched to SDL :)

    Callbacks suck a lot!
     
    Diego Martins, Mar 21, 2006
    #12
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