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Discussion in 'HTML' started by ali1, Feb 21, 2008.

  1. ali1

    ali1 Guest

    Allah (God)

    Islam is the complete submission and obedience to Allah (God). The
    name Allah (God) in Islam never refers to Muhammad (pbuh), as many
    Christians may think; Allah is the personal name of God.

    What do Muslims believe about Allah?
    1. He is the one God, Who has no partner.
    2. Nothing is like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a part of
    His creation.
    3. He is All-Powerful, absolutely Just.
    4. There is no other entity in the entire universe worthy of worship
    besides Him.
    5. He is First, Last, and Everlasting; He was when nothing was, and
    will be when nothing else remains.
    6. He is the All-Knowing, and All-Merciful, the Supreme, the
    7. It is only He Who is capable of granting life to anything.
    8. He sent His Messengers (peace be upon them) to guide all of
    9. He sent Muhammad (pbuh) as the last Prophet and Messenger for all
    10. His book is the Holy Qur'an, the only authentic revealed book in
    the world that has been kept without change.
    11. Allah knows what is in our hearts.

    These are some of the basic guidelines Muslims follow in their
    knowledge of God:

    1. Eliminate any anthropomorphism (human qualities) from their
    conception of Allah. His attributes are not like human attributes,
    despite similar labels or appellations.
    2. Have unwavering faith in exactly what Allah and Prophet Muhammad
    (pbuh) described Allah to be, no more, no less.
    3. Eradicate any hope or desire of learning or knowing the modality of
    His names and attributes.
    4. Belief totally in all the names and attributes of Allah; one cannot
    believe in some and disbelieve the others.
    5. One cannot accept the names of Allah without their associated
    attributes, i.e. one cannot say He is Al-Hayy - 'The Living' and then
    say that
    He is without life.
    6. Similarity in names (or meanings) does not imply similarity in what
    is being described (referents). As a robotics arm differs from a human
    arm, so the "hand" of Allah is nothing like a human hand, His speech
    is nothing like human speech, etc.
    7. Certain words are ambiguous or vague in their meanings, and thus
    may be susceptible to misinterpretation. Only those
    meanings that are in accordance with what is specified by Allah and
    His Prophet (pbuh) are acceptable.


    Islam places great emphasis on cleanliness, in both its physical and
    spiritual aspects. On the physical side, Islam requires the Muslim to
    clean his body, his clothes, his house, and the whole community, and
    he is rewarded by God for doing so. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said, for
    "Removing any harm from the road is charity (that will be rewarded by
    Allah)." [Bukhari]

    While people generally consider cleanliness a desirable attribute,
    Islam insists on it , making it an indispensable fundamental of the
    faith. A muslim is required to to be pure morally and spiritually as
    well as physically. Through the Qur'an and Sunnah Islam requires the
    sincere believer
    to sanitize and purify his entire way of life.

    In the Qur'an Allah commends those who are accustomed to cleanliness:
    "Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who
    keep themselves pure and clean." [2: 22]

    In Islam the Arabic term for purity is Taharah. Books of Islamic
    jurisprudence often contain an entire chapter with Taharah as a

    Allah orders the believer to be tidy in appearance:
    "Keep your clothes clean." [74:4]

    The Qur'an insists that the believer maintain a constant state of
    "Believers! When you prepare for prayer wash your faces, and your
    hands (and arms) to the elbows; rub your heads (with water) and (wash)
    your feet up to the ankles. If you are ritually impure bathe your
    whole body." [5: 6]

    Ritual impurity refers to that resulting from sexual release,
    menstruation and the first forty days after childbirth. Muslims also
    use water, not paper or anything else to after eliminating body

    Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) advised the Muslims to appear neat and tidy in
    private and in public. Once when returning home from battle he advised
    his army:
    "You are soon going to meet your brothers, so tidy your saddles and
    clothes. Be distinguished in the eyes of the people."
    [Abu Dawud]

    On another occasion he said:
    "Don't ever come with your hair and beard disheveled like a
    devil." [Al-Tirmidhi]

    And on another:
    "Had I not been afraid of overburdening my community, I would have
    ordered them to brush their teeth for every prayer."

    Moral hygiene was not ignored, either, for the Prophet (pbuh)
    encouraged the Muslims to make a special prayer upon seeing themselves
    in the mirror:
    "Allah, You have endowed me with a good form; likewise bless me with
    an immaculate character and forbid my face from
    touching the Hellfire." [Ahmad]

    And modesty in dress, for men as well as for women, assists one in
    maintaining purity of thought.

    Being charitable is a way of purifying one's wealth. A Muslim who does
    not give charity (Sadaqah) and pay the required annual Zakah, the 2.5%
    alms-tax, has in effect contaminated his wealth by hoarding that which
    rightfully belongs to others:
    "Of their wealth take alms so that you may purify and sanctify
    them." [9: 103]

    All the laws and injunctions given by Allah and His Prophet (pbuh) are
    pure; on the other hand, man-made laws suffer from the impurities of
    human bias and other imperfections. Thus any formal law can only be
    truly just when it is purified by divine guidance - as elucidated by
    the Qur'an and
    the Sunnah - or if it is divinely ordained to begin with - the

    Muslims Contribution To Science


    Muslims have always had a special interest in astronomy. The moon and
    the sun are of vital importance in the daily life of every Muslim. By
    the moon, Muslims determine the beginning and the end of the months in
    their lunar calendar. By the sun the Muslims calculate the times for
    prayer and fasting. It is also by means of astronomy that Muslims can
    determine the precise direction of the Qiblah, to face the Ka'bah in
    Makkah, during prayer. The most precise solar calendar, superior tothe
    Julian, is the Jilali, devised under the supervision of Umar Khayyam.

    The Qur'an contains many references to astronomy.

    "The heavens and the earth were ordered rightly, and were made
    subservient to man, including the sun, the moon, the stars, and day
    and night. Every heavenly body moves in an orbit assigned to it by God
    and never digresses, making the universe an orderly cosmos whose life
    and existence, diminution and expansion, are totally determined by the
    Creator." [Qur'an30:22]

    These references, and the injunctions to learn, mnspired the early
    Muslim scholars to study the heavens. They integrated the earlier
    works of the Indians, Persians and Greeks into a new synthesis.
    Ptolemy's Almagest (the title as we know it is Arabic) was translated,
    studied and criticized. Many new stars were discovered, as we see in
    their Arabic names - Algol, Deneb, Betelgeuse, Rigel, Aldebaran.
    Astronomical tables were compiled, among them the Toledan tables,
    which were used by Copernicus, Tycho Brahe and Kepler. Also compiled
    were almanacs - another Arabic term. Other terms from Arabic are
    zenith, nadir, albedo, azimuth.

    Muslim astronomers were the first to establish observatories, like the
    one built at Mugharah by Hulagu, the son of Genghis Khan, in Persia,
    and they invented instruments such as the quadrant and astrolabe,
    which led to advances not only in astronomy but in oceanic navigation,
    contributing to the European age of exploration.


    Muslim scholars paid great attention to geography. In fact, the
    Muslims' great concern for geography originated with their religion.
    The Qur'an encourages people to travel throughout the earth to see
    God's signs and patterns everywhere. Islam also requires each Muslim
    to have at least enough knowledge of geography to know the direction
    of the Qiblah (the position of the Ka'bah in Makkah) in order to pray
    five times a day. Muslims were also used to taking long journeys to
    conduct trade as well as to make the Hajj and spread their religion.
    The far-flung Islamic empire enabled scholar-explorers to compile
    large amounts of geographical and climatic information from the
    Atlantic to the Pacific.

    Among the most famous names in the field of geography, even in the
    West, are Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Batuta, renowned for their written
    accounts of their extensive explorations.

    In 1166, Al-Idrisi, the well-known Muslim scholar who served the
    Sicilian court, produced very accurate maps, including a world map
    with all the continents and their mountains, rivers and famous cities.
    Al-Muqdishi was the first geographer to produce accurate maps in

    It was, moreover, with the help of Muslim navigators and their
    inventions that Magellan was able to traverse the Cape of Good Hope,
    and Da Gama and Columbus had Muslim navigators on board their ships.


    Seeking knowledge is obligatory in Islam for every Muslim, man and
    woman. The main sources of Islam, the Qur'an and the Sunnah (Prophet
    Muhammad's traditions), encourage Muslims to seek knowledge and be
    scholars, since this is the best way for people to know Allah (God),
    to appreciate His wondrous creations and be thankful for them. Muslims
    were therefore eager to seek knowledge, both religious and secular,
    and within a few years of Muhammad's mission, a great civilization
    sprang up and flourished. The outcome is shown in the spread of
    Islamic universities; Al-Zaytunah in Tunis, and Al-Azhar in Cairo go
    back more than 1,000 years and are the oldest existing universities in
    the world. Indeed, they were the models for the first European
    universities, such as Bologna, Heidelberg, and the Sorbonne. Even the
    familiar academic cap
    and gown originated at Al-Azhar University.

    Muslims made great advances in many different fields, such as
    geography, physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine, pharmacology,
    architecture, linguistics and astronomy. Algebra and the Arabic
    numerals were introduced to the world by Muslim scholars. The
    astrolabe, the quadrant, and other navigational devices and maps were
    developed by Muslim scholars and played an important role in world
    progress, most notably in Europe's age of exploration.

    Muslim scholars studied the ancient cavitations from Greece and Rome
    to China and India. The works of Aristotle, Ptolemy, Euclid and others
    were translated into Arabic. Muslim scholars and scientists then added
    their own creative ideas, discoveries and inventions, and finally
    transmitted this new knowledge to Europe, leading directly to the
    Renaissance. Many scientific and medical treatises, having been
    translated into Latin, were standard text and reference books as late
    as the 17thand 18th centuries.


    It is interesting to note that Islam so strongly urges mankind to
    study and explore the universe. For example, the Holy Qur'an states:
    "We (Allah) will show you (mankind) Our signs/patterns in the horizons/
    universe and in yourselves until you are convinced
    that the revelation is the truth." [Qur'an, 14:53]

    This invitation to explore and search made Muslims interested in
    astronomy, mathematics, chemistry, and the other sciences, and they
    had a very clear and firm understanding of the correspondences among
    geometry, mathematics, and astronomy.

    The Muslims invented the symbol for zero (The word "cipher" comes from
    Arabic sifr), and they organized the numbers into the decimal system -
    base 10. Additionally, they invented the symbol to express an unknown
    quantity, i.e. variables like x.

    The first great Muslim mathematician, Al-Khawarizmi, invented the
    subject of algebra (al-Jabr), which was further developed by others,
    most notably Umar Khayyam. Al-Khawarizmi's work, in Latin translation,
    brought the Arabic numerals along with the mathematics to Europe,
    through Spain. The word "algorithm" is derived from his name.

    Muslim mathematicians excelled also in geometry, as can be seen in
    their graphic arts, and it was the great Al-Biruni (who excelled also
    in the fields of natural history, even geology and mineralogy) who
    established trigonometry as a distinct branch of mathematics. Other
    Muslim mathematicians made significant progress in number theory.


    In Islam, the human body is a source of appreciation, as it is created
    by Almighty Allah (God). How it functions, how to keep it clean and
    safe, how to prevent diseases from attacking it or cure those
    diseases, have been important issues for Muslims.

    Prophet Muhammad himself urged people to "take medicines for your
    diseases", as people at that time were reluctant to do so. He also
    "God created no illness, but established for it a cure, except for old
    age. When the antidote is applied, the patient will
    recover with the permission of God."

    This was strong motivation to encourage Muslim scientists to explore,
    develop, and apply empirical laws. Much attention was given to
    medicine and public health care. The first hospital was built in
    Baghdad in 706 AC. The Muslims also used camel caravans as mobile
    hospitals, which moved from place to place.

    Since the religion did not forbid it, Muslim scholars used human
    cadavers to study anatomy and physiology and to help their students
    understand how the body functions. This empirical study enabled
    surgery to develop very quickly.

    Al-Razi, known in the West as Rhazes, the famous physician and
    scientist, (d. 932) was one of the greatest physicians in the world in
    the Middle Ages. He stressed empirical observation and clinical
    medicine and was unrivaled as a diagnostician. He also wrote a
    treatise on hygiene in hospitals. Khalaf Abul-Qasim Al-Zahrawi was a
    very famous surgeon in the eleventh century, known in Europe for his
    work, Concessio (Kitab al-Tasrif).

    Ibn Sina (d. 1037), better known to the West as Avicenna, was perhaps
    the greatest physician until the modern era. His famous book, Al-Qanun
    fi al-Tibb, remained a standard textbook even in Europe, for over 700
    years. Ibn Sina's work is still studied and built upon in the East.

    Other significant contributions were made in pharmacology, such as Ibn
    Sina's Kitab al-Shifa' (Book of Healing), and in public health. Every
    major city in the Islamic world had a number of excellent hospitals,
    some of them teaching hospitals, and many of them were specialized for
    particular diseases, including mental and emotional. The Ottomans were
    particularly noted for their building of hospitals and for the high
    level of hygiene practiced in them.


    The word ISLAM has a two-fold meaning: peace, and submission to God.
    This submission requires a fully conscious and willing effort to
    submit to the one Almighty God. One must consciously and
    conscientiously give oneself to the service of Allah. This means to
    act on what Allah enjoins all of us to do (in the Qur'an) and what His
    beloved Prophet, Muhammad (pbuh) encouraged us to do in his Sunnah
    (his lifestyle and sayings personifying the Qur'an).

    Once we humble ourselves, rid ourselves of our egoism and submit
    totally to Allah, and to Him exclusively, in faith and in action, we
    will surely feel peace in our hearts. Establishing peace in our hearts
    will bring about peace in our external conduct as well.

    Islam is careful to remind us that it not a religion to be paid mere
    lip service; rather it is an all-encompassing way of life that must be
    practiced continuously for it to be Islam. The Muslim must practice
    the five pillars of the religion: the declaration of faith in the
    oneness of Allah and the prophet hood of Muhammad (pbuh), prayer,
    fasting the month of Ramadan, alms-tax, and the pilgrimage to Makkah;
    and believe in the six articles of faith: belief in God, the Holy
    Books, the prophets, the angels, the Day of Judgment and God's decree,
    whether for good or ill.

    There are other injunctions and commandments which concern virtually
    all facets of one's personal, family and civic life. These include
    such matters as diet, clothing, personal hygiene, interpersonal
    relations, business ethics, responsibilities towards parents, spouse
    and children, marriage, divorce and inheritance, civil and criminal
    law, fighting in defense of Islam, relations with non-Muslims, and so
    much more.

    Human Rights

    Islam has been from its inception very concerned with issues of human
    rights. Privacy, freedom, dignity and equality are guaranteed in
    Islam. The holy Qur'an states clearly:
    "There is no compulsion in religion."

    And there are no reliable reports to confirm the old accusations that
    when the Muslim armies were expanding into Asia, Africa and Europe the
    people were put to the sword if they failed to convert to Islam. The
    best proof is that not only did the Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and
    Hindus in those areas not perish or otherwise disappear, they actually
    flourished as protected minority communities, and many individuals
    rose to prominent positions in the arts, sciences, even in government.

    The lives, property and privacy of all citizens in an Islamic state
    are considered sacred, whether or not the person is Muslim. Non-
    Muslims have freedom of worship and the practice of their religions,
    including their own family law and religious courts. They are obliged
    to pay a different tax (Jizyah) instead of the Zakah, and the state is
    obligated to provide both protection and government services. Before
    the modern era it was extremely rare to find a state or government
    anywhere in the world that was as solicitous of its minorities and
    their civil rights as the Islamic states.

    In no other religion did women receive such a degree of legal and
    moral equality and personal respect. Moreover, racism and tribalism
    are incompatible with Islam, for the Qur'an speaks of human equality
    in the following terms:
    "Mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made
    you into nations and tribes, that you may come
    to know one another. Truly, the most honored of you in God's sight is
    the greatest of you in piety."


    Islam honors all the prophets who were sent to mankind. Muslims
    respect all prophets in general, but Jesus in particular, because he
    was one of the prophets who foretold the coming of Muhammad. Muslims,
    too, await the second coming of Jesus. They consider him one of the
    greatest of Allah's prophets to mankind. A Muslim does not refer to
    him simply as "Jesus," but normally adds the phrase "peace be upon
    him" as a sign of respect.

    No other religion in the world respects and dignifies Jesus as Islam
    does. The Qur'an confirms his virgin birth (a chapter of the Qur'an is
    entitled "Mary"), and Mary is considered to have been one of the
    purest women in all creation. The Qur'an describes Jesus' birth as
    "Behold!' the Angel said, God has chosen you, and purified you, and
    chosen you above the women of all nations. Mary, God gives you good
    news of a word from Him, whose name shall be the Messiah, Jesus son of
    Mary, honored in this world and in the Hereafter, and one of those
    brought near to God. He shall speak to the people from his cradle and
    in maturity, and he shall be of the righteous. She said: "My Lord! How
    shall I have a son when no man has touched me?' He said: "Even so; God
    creates what He will. When He decrees a thing, He says to it, 'Be!'
    and it is." [3:42-47]

    Muslims believe that Jesus was born immaculately, and through the same
    power which had brought Eve to life and Adam into being without a
    father or a mother.

    "Truly, the likeness of Jesus with God is as the likeness of Adam. He
    created him of dust, and then said to him, 'Be!' and he was." [3:59]

    During his prophetic mission, Jesus performed many miracles. The
    Qur'an tells us that he said:
    "I have come to you with a sign from your Lord: I make for you out of
    clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, and breathe into it and it
    becomes a bird by God's leave. And I heal the blind, and the lepers,
    and I raise the dead by God's leave." [3:49]

    Muhammad and Jesus, as well as the other prophets, were sent to
    confirm the belief in one God. This is referred to in the Qur'an where
    Jesus is reported as saying that he came:
    "To attest the law which was before me, and to make lawful to you part
    of what was forbidden you; I have come to you
    with a sign from your Lord, so fear God and obey me." [3:50]

    Prophet Muhammad emphasized the importance of Jesus by saying:
    "Whoever believes there is no god but Allah, alone without partner,
    that Muhammad is His messenger, that Jesus is a servant and messenger
    of God, His word breathed into Mary and a spirit emanating from Him,
    and that Paradise and Hellare true, shall be received by God into
    Heaven. [Bukhari]


    Islam urges people to read and learn on every occasion. The verses of
    the Qur'an command, advise, warn, and encourage people to observe the
    phenomena of nature, the succession of day and night, the movements of
    stars, the sun, moon, and other heavenly bodies. Muslims are urged to
    look into everything in the universe, to travel, investigate, explore
    and understand them, the better to appreciate and be thankful for all
    the wonders and beauty of God's creations. The first revelation to
    Muhammad showed how much Islam cares about knowledge.

    "Read, in the name of your Lord, Who created..." [96:1]

    Learning is obligatory for both men and women. Moreover, education is
    not restricted to religious issues; it includes all fields of
    knowledge, including biology, physics, and technology. Scholars have
    the highest status in Islam, second only to that accorded to

    Almost from the very beginnings of the Islamic state Muslims began to
    study and to master a number of fields of so-called secular learning,
    beginning with linguistics and architecture, but very quickly
    extending to mathematics, physics, astronomy, geography, medicine,
    chemistry and philosophy. They translated and synthesized the known
    works of the ancient world, from Greece, Persia, India, even China.
    Before long they were criticizing, improving and expanding on that
    knowledge. Centuries before the European Renaissance there were Muslim
    ³Rennaissance² men, men who were simultaneously explorers, scientists,
    philosophers, physicians and poets, like Ibn Sina (Avicenna), Umar
    Khayyam, and others

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    ali1, Feb 21, 2008
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