Re: Domain and Server How To

Discussion in 'HTML' started by Ivan Shmakov, Mar 3, 2013.

  1. Ivan Shmakov

    Ivan Shmakov Guest

    >>>>> Andrew Batty <> writes:

    [Cross-posting to news:alt.html and news:comp.mail.misc, for
    there're both a few issues with the HTML itself, and with the
    email "server" configuration described. Excluding news:alt.html
    from Followup-To:, though.]

    > Hi, a brief but straightforward step by step guide to serving your
    > resources to the wider world. Email, web service and domain setup.


    > http://www.lightclock.co.uk/network


    > Enjoy!


    Three questions regarding the HTML code:

    * did you consider using the <p /> element [1] for the
    paragraphs? despite how it may look, <br /> is /not/ a proper
    element for such;

    * did you consider splitting your document into sections? (using
    <h2 />, and possibly <h3 />, ...);

    * did you consider checking your HTML against the W3C Markup
    Validation Service [2]?

    [1] http://www.w3.org/TR/html5/grouping-content.html#the-p-element
    [2] http://validator.w3.org/

    > Domain and Server How-To


    > The main prerequisite for running a domain with a server on it is a
    > proper cable connection which is DSL rather than ADSL. The latter is
    > fine for a client network where most traffic flows downstream to you,
    > whereas with a server you need the more symetrically rated
    > bidrectional flow of DSL rather than Asymetric DSL.


    Also, one may consider renting a "virtual" server, which may
    cost some extra 10 USD per month (although there're offerings as
    cheap as 3 USD per month), but will have almost perfect
    connectivity, and only very infrequent downtime. (Per my
    experience, a virtual server continuously running for a year is
    more of a rule than an exception.)

    > The next step to having a domain is checking it's availability with a
    > search engine. If your choice of domain name isn't listed then move
    > quickly to park it. There are a few reputable companies that will do
    > this for you and it's their only role on the internet. The likes of
    > GoDaddy and Freeparking are known to be good in the UK.


    I don't quite understand what "parking" is (and what it's for),
    but I'd prefer for the domain registrar to support /both/ DNSSEC
    and IPv6. Which makes the list quite short. Consider, e. g.:

    https://www.sixxs.net/faq/dns/?faq=ipv6glue
    http://www.icann.org/en/news/in-focus/dnssec/deployment
    http://www.internetsociety.org/deploy360/resources/dnssec-registrars/

    > To check your STATIC Ip address and make a note of it on your DSL
    > connection, on which the modem must never be switched off now, click
    > here [3]. This is the Wide Area Network (Internet) side address of your
    > connection that needs registration with DNS (domain parking).


    Note, however, that now that the world is running short of IPv4
    addresses, there're quite a few ISP's that only provide NAT'ed
    Internet access. (Which means that the IP address obtained via
    [3] may be shared among a number of ISP's clients, and thus
    utterly useless for the purposes described.)

    BTW, [3] doesn't seem to support IPv6.

    [3] http://checkip.dyndns.com/

    > A minimum period for domain parking is usually two years, this is a
    > sensible initial investment. If you do end up running a successful
    > concern renewal is something that the DNS company will remind you
    > needs attention before your domain name is snatched up by some other
    > DNS company to be auctioned or held to ransom in other words.


    The "absolute" minimum domain registration period is one year,
    AIUI.

    > When your domain is up and running with DNS test it with a ping in a
    > DOS Window or at the linux command line on a LAN side PC. This will
    > tell you soon after DNS registration when your domain name has
    > propagated throughout DNS on the Internet and actually resolves name
    > to Ip address. This brings us to the subject of setting static
    > addresses on the LAN side of your router for your PCs. Routers use
    > one of two address ranges to give each client device (such as a PC)
    > an address each with DHCP. One of these ranges is [10.x.x.x] and the
    > other is [192.168.x.x].


    These are ranges defined in RFC 1918 [4]. And there's actually
    one more of them: 172.16.0.0/16. (Or, using "x-notation",
    172.16.x.x.)

    [4] http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc1918.txt

    > To see which range a router is using on your LAN in Windows at the
    > DOS prompt type "winipcfg" or later versions "ipconfig". In linux
    > that translates to "ifconfig" on the command line.


    Alternatively, one may use $ ip addr list, or just $ ip a, at
    the GNU/Linux command line. (OTOH, $ ifconfig would probably
    also work on other Unix-like systems, such as, e. g., FreeBSD.)

    > We are now going to set those addresses permanently on your client
    > devices using manual config rather than letting DHCP give varying
    > addresses at switch on of each client. This enables the server on
    > the LAN to have a permanent LAN address to route it's Internet
    > traffic to.


    There should be some information, or a pointer to such, on how
    one does that.

    > To route traffic from the Internet incoming direction needs bit of
    > setup at the router. This is variously known as port-forwarding or
    > NATting (Network Address Translation). The webserver port is HTTP
    > which is port 80 usually. You should know your router (gateway)
    > address from "ipconfig" on a linux client


    "ipconfig" is an obvious typo here.

    > or "ipconfig" in Windows. Enter your router address into a client
    > machine browser and look for the port-forwarding or NAT feature and
    > route Internet side HTTP or port 80 to the server address on the LAN
    > port 80. You could be running Apache in linux on your server or
    > perhaps IIS or Aprelium Abyss in Windows.


    Or Lighttpd, or Nginx, or... There're a lot of HTTP servers to
    choose from, and most of the free software ones are
    cross-platform, and available for almost whatever "general
    purpose" system one may find running at one's home.

    > These HTTP server softwares are documented elsewhere. I would say
    > that if you are using Windows 7/8 Pro or such that you need to turn
    > IIS on in Windows Features (Control Panel/Programs and Features).
    > All webservers require at least an index page in the wwwroot
    > directory to start a site with.


    ... And at least Apache comes with a "default" page.

    > The rest is web coding work beyond the scope of this article.
    > Described next is setting up Google Webmasters and Analytics
    > accounts. Your webserver possibly hosts more than one site. All
    > your sites need to be listed in the root directory of the server in a
    > sitemap for Google. This is a plain text file called "sitemap.txt"
    > with a list of the urls for each site. As follows:-
    > http://www.example.net http://www.example.net/site_2
    > http://www.example.net/another_website


    I don't quite understand it. What if my HTTP server hosts
    http://example.org/ and http://example.com/; do I need to
    mention all of the virtual hosts in a single sitemap?

    [...]

    > This next section deals with mail server setup using the Exim 4 SMTP
    > and Dovecot POP3


    Note that Dovecot also supports IMAP4, which is a much more
    featureful protocol to access one's mailbox. Personally, I've
    scrapped the last POP3 server I've had under my control
    something like a decade ago.

    > softwares and applies only to linux systems. The type of mail server
    > described here will service a LAN subnet and send and recieve mail
    > for the domain to other mail servers on the Internet.


    Please note that this may not be possible while using a "general
    purpose" ISP, as their customers' address ranges are typically
    blacklisted at major email "hubs" (such as, e. g., Google Mail.)
    For this, one'd almost certainly need a "virtual" (or perhaps a
    collocated real one, for those having money for such) server.

    > If using a debian or ubuntu OS the server softwares should be
    > installed with Synaptic or "apt-get", that's Exim and Dovecot. Exim
    > is the SMTP server which is the actual Mail Transfer Agent accepting
    > incoming mail from both LAN and Internet via SMTP and sending
    > outgoing mail using the same protocol. Mail client software on LAN
    > workstations needs to collect incoming mail from the server with Post
    > Office Protocol 3 (POP3) and Dovecot serves this protocol to clients
    > from the server. For Exim configuration see here [5] but where the
    > article specifies the listen on "127.0.0.1" address (localhost) use
    > the LAN Ip address of the server, in other words the server's
    > interface Ip address.


    To quote [5]:

    > if you want to allow remote connections then specify 127.0.0.1, then
    > a semi-colon and then the IP address of the server itself.


    thus, both 127.x.x.x /and/ the server's LAN IP address(es)
    should be entered there.

    [5] http://www.electrictoolbox.com/changing-exim4-settings-debian-5-lenny/

    > For "machines to relay mail for" addresses enter your LAN series of
    > addresses. All that remains for SMTP incoming and outoimng mail
    > transmission from the server to the wide area network is the NATting
    > (port-forwarding) of port 25 to the server machine at the router.


    My long-time recommendation would be to also configure SSL/TLS
    at both the MTA and the mailbox server; and the latter to /only/
    accept secure connections.

    Sure, it's possible to use a self-signed server X.509
    certificate here (and even some bigger folks use that; consider,
    e. g., some of the Debian MX'es), but it seems much better to
    use one that's properly signed by a "trusted party." Such as
    https://cacert.org/.

    > The domain should now accept and be able to service SMTP connections.
    > POP3 server software Dovecot should be configured as here with
    > "mail_location" usually taking the "mbox" option with default
    > settings used in Exim 4 configuration.


    Depending on how the mailboxes are to be actually used, using
    Maildir may be a considerably better solution.

    --
    FSF associate member #7257
    Ivan Shmakov, Mar 3, 2013
    #1
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