[Q] removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

Discussion in 'Ruby' started by Chuck Remes, Jul 17, 2009.

1. Chuck RemesGuest

I need to remove duplicates from an array of arrays. I can't use
Array#uniq because some fields are different and not part of the
"key." Here's an example where the first 3 elements of each sub array
are the "key" and determine uniqueness. I want to keep only the first
one I get.

>> a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]

=> [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]

The return value of deduplicating this array should be: [[1, 2, 3, 4,
5]]

Here is my first attempt at solving the problem:

>> def dedup ary
>> ary.map do |line|

?> dupes = ary.select { |row| row[0..2] == line[0..2] }
?> dupes.first
>> end.uniq
>> end

=> nil
>>

?> dedup a
=> [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]

This works. However, it is *super slow* when operating on my dataset.
My arrays contain hundreds of thousands of sub arrays. The unique key
for each sub array is the first 12 (of 18) elements. It is taking many
seconds to produce each intermediate array ("dupes" in the example
above), so deduping the entire thing would likely take days.

Anyone have a superior and faster solution?

cr

Chuck Remes, Jul 17, 2009

2. Joel VanderWerfGuest

Chuck Remes wrote:
> I need to remove duplicates from an array of arrays. I can't use
> Array#uniq because some fields are different and not part of the "key."
> Here's an example where the first 3 elements of each sub array are the
> "key" and determine uniqueness. I want to keep only the first one I get.
>
> >> a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]

> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]
>
> The return value of deduplicating this array should be: [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]

Might be faster if your intermediate is a hash, so instead of N**2 time
it's N.

a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]

h = {}
a.each do |row|
h[row[0..2]] ||= row # record the first match
end

p h.values # ==> [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]

Note that the output may come out in a different order. Does that matter?

--
vjoel : Joel VanderWerf : path berkeley edu : 510 665 3407

Joel VanderWerf, Jul 17, 2009

3. David A. BlackGuest

Hi --

On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, Chuck Remes wrote:

> I need to remove duplicates from an array of arrays. I can't use Array#uniq
> because some fields are different and not part of the "key." Here's an
> example where the first 3 elements of each sub array are the "key" and
> determine uniqueness. I want to keep only the first one I get.
>
>>> a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]

> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]
>
> The return value of deduplicating this array should be: [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]
>
> Here is my first attempt at solving the problem:
>
>
>>> def dedup ary
>>> ary.map do |line|

> ?> dupes = ary.select { |row| row[0..2] == line[0..2] }
> ?> dupes.first
>>> end.uniq
>>> end

> => nil
>>>

> ?> dedup a
> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]
>
> This works. However, it is *super slow* when operating on my dataset. My
> arrays contain hundreds of thousands of sub arrays. The unique key for each
> sub array is the first 12 (of 18) elements. It is taking many seconds to
> produce each intermediate array ("dupes" in the example above), so deduping
> the entire thing would likely take days.
>
> Anyone have a superior and faster solution?

See if this speeds it up meaningfully (and make sure I've got the
logic right):

def dedup(ary)
uniq = {}
ary.each do |line|
uniq[ary[0..2]] ||= line
end
uniq.values
end

David

--
David A. Black / Ruby Power and Light, LLC
Ruby/Rails consulting & training: http://www.rubypal.com
Now available: The Well-Grounded Rubyist (http://manning.com/black2)
Training! Intro to Ruby, with Black & Kastner, September 14-17

David A. Black, Jul 17, 2009
4. Bil KlebGuest

David A. Black wrote:
> def dedup(ary)
> uniq = {}
> ary.each do |line|
> uniq[ary[0..2]] ||= line
> end
> uniq.values
> end

Sweet! (I love Ruby; thanks Matz.)

Regards,
--
Bil

Bil Kleb, Jul 17, 2009
5. Chuck RemesGuest

On Jul 17, 2009, at 5:39 PM, David A. Black wrote:

> Hi --
>
> On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, Chuck Remes wrote:
>
>> I need to remove duplicates from an array of arrays. I can't use
>> Array#uniq because some fields are different and not part of the
>> "key." Here's an example where the first 3 elements of each sub
>> array are the "key" and determine uniqueness. I want to keep only
>> the first one I get.
>>
>>>> a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]

>> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]
>>
>> The return value of deduplicating this array should be: [[1, 2, 3,
>> 4, 5]]
>>
>> Here is my first attempt at solving the problem:
>>
>>
>>>> def dedup ary
>>>> ary.map do |line|

>> ?> dupes = ary.select { |row| row[0..2] == line[0..2] }
>> ?> dupes.first
>>>> end.uniq
>>>> end

>> => nil
>> ?> dedup a
>> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]
>>
>> This works. However, it is *super slow* when operating on my
>> dataset. My arrays contain hundreds of thousands of sub arrays. The
>> unique key for each sub array is the first 12 (of 18) elements. It
>> is taking many seconds to produce each intermediate array ("dupes"
>> in the example above), so deduping the entire thing would likely
>> take days.
>>
>> Anyone have a superior and faster solution?

>
> See if this speeds it up meaningfully (and make sure I've got the
> logic right):
>
> def dedup(ary)
> uniq = {}
> ary.each do |line|
> uniq[ary[0..2]] ||= line
> end
> uniq.values
> end

David and Joel,

you both provided the same solution. I will test this to see what kind
of performance I get. It will be hell on memory, but I assumed any
solution likely would be. (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior
to removing the dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering
issue.)

cr

Chuck Remes, Jul 18, 2009
6. Guest

On Fri, Jul 17, 2009 at 7:51 PM, Chuck Remes<> wrote:
> (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior to removing the
> dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering issue.)

I think what Joel was referring to was that in Ruby 1.8 a Hash doesn't
maintain insertion order when traversed (Ruby 1.9 does maintain
insertion order):

ruby 1.8.2 (2004-12-25) [powerpc-darwin8.0]:
irb(main):001:0> h = {}
=> {}
irb(main):002:0> 5.times{|n| h[n] = n}
=> 5
irb(main):003:0> h
=> {0=>0, 1=>1, 2=>2, 3=>3, 4=>4}
=> 3
irb(main):005:0> h
=> {0=>0, 1=>1, "sadf"=>3, 2=>2, 3=>3, 4=>4}

, Jul 18, 2009
7. David A. BlackGuest

Hi --

On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, Chuck Remes wrote:

>
> On Jul 17, 2009, at 5:39 PM, David A. Black wrote:
>
>> Hi --
>>
>> On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, Chuck Remes wrote:
>>
>>> I need to remove duplicates from an array of arrays. I can't use
>>> Array#uniq because some fields are different and not part of the "key."
>>> Here's an example where the first 3 elements of each sub array are the
>>> "key" and determine uniqueness. I want to keep only the first one I get.
>>>
>>>>> a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]
>>> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]
>>>
>>> The return value of deduplicating this array should be: [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]
>>>
>>> Here is my first attempt at solving the problem:
>>>
>>>
>>>>> def dedup ary
>>>>> ary.map do |line|
>>> ?> dupes = ary.select { |row| row[0..2] == line[0..2] }
>>> ?> dupes.first
>>>>> end.uniq
>>>>> end
>>> => nil
>>> ?> dedup a
>>> => [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5]]
>>>
>>> This works. However, it is *super slow* when operating on my dataset. My
>>> arrays contain hundreds of thousands of sub arrays. The unique key for
>>> each sub array is the first 12 (of 18) elements. It is taking many seconds
>>> to produce each intermediate array ("dupes" in the example above), so
>>> deduping the entire thing would likely take days.
>>>
>>> Anyone have a superior and faster solution?

>>
>> See if this speeds it up meaningfully (and make sure I've got the
>> logic right):
>>
>> def dedup(ary)
>> uniq = {}
>> ary.each do |line|
>> uniq[ary[0..2]] ||= line
>> end
>> uniq.values
>> end

>
> David and Joel,
>
> you both provided the same solution. I will test this to see what kind of
> performance I get. It will be hell on memory, but I assumed any solution
> likely would be. (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior to removing the
> dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering issue.)

I believe the version you had originally, where you do a mapping of
the whole array, will typically use much more memory than the hash
version. Let's say your original array has 1000 inner arrays, with 10
that are considered unique. The mapping will be a new array, also of
1000 elements. The hash will have 10 key/value pairs -- thus much
smaller.

David

--
David A. Black / Ruby Power and Light, LLC
Ruby/Rails consulting & training: http://www.rubypal.com
Now available: The Well-Grounded Rubyist (http://manning.com/black2)
Training! Intro to Ruby, with Black & Kastner, September 14-17

David A. Black, Jul 18, 2009
8. David A. BlackGuest

Hi --

On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, wrote:

> On Fri, Jul 17, 2009 at 7:51 PM, Chuck Remes<> wrote:
>> (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior to removing the
>> dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering issue.)

>
> I think what Joel was referring to was that in Ruby 1.8 a Hash doesn't
> maintain insertion order when traversed (Ruby 1.9 does maintain
> insertion order):
>
> ruby 1.8.2 (2004-12-25) [powerpc-darwin8.0]:
> irb(main):001:0> h = {}
> => {}
> irb(main):002:0> 5.times{|n| h[n] = n}
> => 5
> irb(main):003:0> h
> => {0=>0, 1=>1, 2=>2, 3=>3, 4=>4}
> => 3
> irb(main):005:0> h
> => {0=>0, 1=>1, "sadf"=>3, 2=>2, 3=>3, 4=>4}

If you wanted to maintain order you could (for some but probably not
much performance penalty) do something like:

def dedup(ary)
uniq = {}
res = []
ary.each do |line|
key = line[0..2]
next if uniq[key]
res << (uniq[key] = line)
end
res
end

David

--
David A. Black / Ruby Power and Light, LLC
Ruby/Rails consulting & training: http://www.rubypal.com
Now available: The Well-Grounded Rubyist (http://manning.com/black2)
Training! Intro to Ruby, with Black & Kastner, September 14-17

David A. Black, Jul 18, 2009
9. Chuck RemesGuest

On Jul 17, 2009, at 7:55 PM, David A. Black wrote:

> Hi --
>
> On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, Chuck Remes wrote:
>> David and Joel,
>>
>> you both provided the same solution. I will test this to see what
>> kind of performance I get. It will be hell on memory, but I assumed
>> any solution likely would be. (And Joel, I have presorted the array
>> prior to removing the dupes so I have already taken care of the
>> ordering issue.)

>
> I believe the version you had originally, where you do a mapping of
> the whole array, will typically use much more memory than the hash
> version. Let's say your original array has 1000 inner arrays, with 10
> that are considered unique. The mapping will be a new array, also of
> 1000 elements. The hash will have 10 key/value pairs -- thus much
> smaller.

Oh yes, my version had terrible execution performance and memory
performance. I was trying to figure out how to use a hash but did not
make the leap to the ||= construction on my own. I knew I was missing
something obvious... all of your rapid responses proved it.

FYI, the dedup code you provided performs quite admirably. I'll take a
look at its memory footprint when I get in the office Monday and
report back.

cr

Chuck Remes, Jul 18, 2009
10. s.rossGuest

Hi---

On Jul 17, 2009, at 6:14 PM, David A. Black wrote:

> Hi --
>
> On Sat, 18 Jul 2009, wrote:
>
>> On Fri, Jul 17, 2009 at 7:51 PM, Chuck
>> Remes<> wrote:
>>> (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior to removing the
>>> dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering issue.)

>>
>> I think what Joel was referring to was that in Ruby 1.8 a Hash
>> doesn't
>> maintain insertion order when traversed (Ruby 1.9 does maintain
>> insertion order):
>>
>> ruby 1.8.2 (2004-12-25) [powerpc-darwin8.0]:
>> irb(main):001:0> h = {}
>> => {}
>> irb(main):002:0> 5.times{|n| h[n] = n}
>> => 5
>> irb(main):003:0> h
>> => {0=>0, 1=>1, 2=>2, 3=>3, 4=>4}
>> => 3
>> irb(main):005:0> h
>> => {0=>0, 1=>1, "sadf"=>3, 2=>2, 3=>3, 4=>4}

>
> If you wanted to maintain order you could (for some but probably not
> much performance penalty) do something like:
>
> def dedup(ary)
> uniq = {}
> res = []
> ary.each do |line|
> key = line[0..2]
> next if uniq[key]
> res << (uniq[key] = line)
> end
> res
> end
>
>
> David

I missed the beginning of this thread, but here is an implementation
I've used successfully:

def uniq_by(subject, &block)
h = {}
a = []
subject.each do |s|
comparator = yield(s)
unless h[comparator]
a.push(s)
h[comparator] = s
end
end
a
end

Usage:

u = uniq_by(ary|{ |item| item.element }

Basically, what this allows you to do is specify what exactly about an
array item must be unique. It also preserves the original array order,
with a "first entry wins" approach to duplicate elimination.

Hope this is useful.

s.ross, Jul 19, 2009
11. 7stud --Guest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

Chuck Remes wrote:

> (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior
> to removing the dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering
> issue.)

That's well and good, but in the process of using a hash to remove the
duplicates, the result will be out of order. See example below.

>
> I was trying to figure out how to use a hash but did not
> make the leap to the ||= construction on my own.
>

A simple if statement will achieve the same result:

a = [
[1, 2, 3, 10],
[1, 2, 3, 20],
[1, 2, 3, 30],
[2, 2, 3, 40]
]

h = {}

a.each do |suba|
key = suba.slice(0, 3)

if h[key]
next
else
h[key] = suba
end

end

p h.values

--output:--
[[2, 2, 3, 40], [1, 2, 3, 10]]

--
Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.

7stud --, Jul 19, 2009
12. David A. BlackGuest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

Hi --

On Mon, 20 Jul 2009, 7stud -- wrote:

> Chuck Remes wrote:
>
>> (And Joel, I have presorted the array prior
>> to removing the dupes so I have already taken care of the ordering
>> issue.)

>
> That's well and good, but in the process of using a hash to remove the
> duplicates, the result will be out of order. See example below.
>
>
>>
>> I was trying to figure out how to use a hash but did not
>> make the leap to the ||= construction on my own.
>>

>
> A simple if statement will achieve the same result:
>
> a = [
> [1, 2, 3, 10],
> [1, 2, 3, 20],
> [1, 2, 3, 30],
> [2, 2, 3, 40]
> ]
>
> h = {}
>
> a.each do |suba|
> key = suba.slice(0, 3)
>
> if h[key]
> next
> else
> h[key] = suba
> end
>
> end
>
> p h.values
>
> --output:--
> [[2, 2, 3, 40], [1, 2, 3, 10]]

I'm not sure what that buys you, though. The ||= idiom should work
fine, unless you need to do something extra during the if statement.

David

--
David A. Black / Ruby Power and Light, LLC
Ruby/Rails consulting & training: http://www.rubypal.com
Now available: The Well-Grounded Rubyist (http://manning.com/black2)
Training! Intro to Ruby, with Black & Kastner, September 14-17

David A. Black, Jul 19, 2009
13. Siep KortelingGuest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

David A. Black wrote:
> Hi --
>
> On Mon, 20 Jul 2009, 7stud -- wrote:
>
>>>

>> [2, 2, 3, 40]
>> h[key] = suba
>> end
>>
>> end
>>
>> p h.values
>>
>> --output:--
>> [[2, 2, 3, 40], [1, 2, 3, 10]]

>
> I'm not sure what that buys you, though. The ||= idiom should work
> fine, unless you need to do something extra during the if statement.
>
>
> David

Facets has enumerable#uniq_by implemented like this:

def uniq_by #:yield:
h = {}; inject([]) {|a,x| h[yield(x)] ||= a << x}
end

So you can do:

require 'facets'
a = [[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [1, 2, 3, 9, 4], [1, 2, 3, 4, 4]]
res = a.uniq_by{|el| el[0..2]}

hth,

Siep

--
Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.

Siep Korteling, Jul 19, 2009
14. 7stud --Guest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

David A. Black wrote:
> I'm not sure what that buys you, though.

Simplicity of comprehension over brevity.

> The ||= idiom should work
> fine,

Of course.
--
Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.

7stud --, Jul 19, 2009
15. David A. BlackGuest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

Hi --

On Mon, 20 Jul 2009, 7stud -- wrote:

> David A. Black wrote:
>> I'm not sure what that buys you, though.

>
> Simplicity of comprehension over brevity.

I guess I like the ||= idiom because it has both. But the if statement
will definitely work, of course.

David

--
David A. Black / Ruby Power and Light, LLC
Ruby/Rails consulting & training: http://www.rubypal.com
Now available: The Well-Grounded Rubyist (http://manning.com/black2)
Training! Intro to Ruby, with Black & Kastner, September 14-17

David A. Black, Jul 19, 2009
16. 7stud --Guest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

Siep Korteling wrote:
>
>

Just remember this:

inject() = shite
--
Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.

7stud --, Jul 19, 2009
17. 7stud --Guest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

David A. Black wrote:
> Hi --
>
> On Mon, 20 Jul 2009, 7stud -- wrote:
>
>> David A. Black wrote:
>>> I'm not sure what that buys you, though.

>>
>> Simplicity of comprehension over brevity.

>
> I guess I like the ||= idiom because it has both.

For you, yes. But apparently not for the op:

>>I was trying to figure out how to use a hash but did not
>>make the leap to the ||= construction on my own.

> The ||= idiom should work
> fine

..until it doesn't (I think you know what I'm refering to).
--
Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.

7stud --, Jul 19, 2009
18. David A. BlackGuest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

Hi --

On Mon, 20 Jul 2009, 7stud -- wrote:

> David A. Black wrote:
>> Hi --
>>
>> On Mon, 20 Jul 2009, 7stud -- wrote:
>>
>>> David A. Black wrote:
>>>> I'm not sure what that buys you, though.
>>>
>>> Simplicity of comprehension over brevity.

>>
>> I guess I like the ||= idiom because it has both.

>
> For you, yes. But apparently not for the op:
>
>>> I was trying to figure out how to use a hash but did not
>>> make the leap to the ||= construction on my own.

I wouldn't recommend freezing one's knowledge or leap abilities at a
particular point, though I'm certainly in sympathy with being
suspicious of punctuation-heavy stuff, but in the case of ||= it's
such a common idiom, and so easy to learn, that it seems like a bit of
an artificial hardship not to learn it. Still, if will work too

>> The ||= idiom should work
>> fine

>
> ..until it doesn't (I think you know what I'm refering to).

The hash default thing? I don't think that comes into play here, does
it?

David

--
David A. Black / Ruby Power and Light, LLC
Ruby/Rails consulting & training: http://www.rubypal.com
Now available: The Well-Grounded Rubyist (http://manning.com/black2)
Training! Intro to Ruby, with Black & Kastner, September 14-17

David A. Black, Jul 19, 2009
19. 7stud --Guest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

David A. Black wrote:
>>> The ||= idiom should work
>>> fine

>>
>> ..until it doesn't (I think you know what I'm refering to).

>
> The hash default thing? I don't think that comes into play here, does
> it?
>

No, but whenever I see ||= now, I get scared.
--
Posted via http://www.ruby-forum.com/.

7stud --, Jul 19, 2009
20. Joel VanderWerfGuest

Re: removing array duplicates where a subset is unique

7stud -- wrote:
> No, but whenever I see ||= now, I get scared.

I do to! It looks like a very angry gnome.

--
vjoel : Joel VanderWerf : path berkeley edu : 510 665 3407

Joel VanderWerf, Jul 20, 2009