Doing both regex match and assignment within a If loop?

V

Victor Hooi

Hi,

I have logline that I need to test against multiple regexes. E.g.:

import re

expression1 = re.compile(r'....')
expression2 = re.compile(r'....')

with open('log.txt') as f:
for line in f:
if expression1.match(line):
# Do something - extract fields from line.
elif expression2.match(line):
# Do something else - extract fields from line.
else:
# Oh noes! Raise exception.

However, in the "Do something" section - I need access to the match object itself, so that I can strip out certain fields from the line.

Is it possible to somehow test for a match, as well as do assignment of the re match object to a variable?

if expression1.match(line) = results:
results.groupsdict()...

Obviously the above won't work - however, is there a Pythonic way to tackle this?

What I'm trying to avoid is this:

if expression1.match(line):
results = expression1.match(line)

which I assume would call the regex match against the line twice - and when I'm dealing with a huge amount of log lines, slow things down.

Cheers,
Victor
 
C

Chris Rebert

Hi,

I have logline that I need to test against multiple regexes. E.g.:

import re

expression1 = re.compile(r'....')
expression2 = re.compile(r'....')

with open('log.txt') as f:
for line in f:
if expression1.match(line):
# Do something - extract fields from line.
elif expression2.match(line):
# Do something else - extract fields from line.
else:
# Oh noes! Raise exception.

However, in the "Do something" section - I need access to the match object itself, so that I can strip out certain fields from the line.

Is it possible to somehow test for a match, as well as do assignment of the re match object to a variable?

if expression1.match(line) = results:
results.groupsdict()...

AFAIK, not without hacks and/or being unidiomatic.
Obviously the above won't work - however, is there a Pythonic way to tackle this?

What I'm trying to avoid is this:

if expression1.match(line):
results = expression1.match(line)

which I assume would call the regex match against the line twice - and when I'm dealing with a huge amount of log lines, slow things down.

def process(line):
match = expr1.match(line)
if match:
# ...extract fields…
return something
match = expr2.match(line)
if match:
# ...extract fields…
return something
# etc…
raise SomeError() # Oh noes!

with open('log.txt') as f:
for line in f:
results = process(line)


If you choose to further move the extractor snippets into their own
functions, then you can do:


# these could be lambdas if they're simple enough
def case1(match):
# ...
def case2(match):
# …
# etc...

REGEX_EXTRACTOR_PAIRS = [
(re.compile(r'....'), case1),
(re.compile(r'....'), case2),
# etc...
]

def process(line):
for regex, extractor in REGEX_EXTRACTOR_PAIRS:
match = regex.match(line)
if match:
return extractor(match)
raise SomeError()

Although this second option is likely somewhat less performant, but it
definitely saves on repetition.

Cheers,
Chris
 
S

Steven D'Aprano

Is it possible to somehow test for a match, as well as do assignment of
the re match object to a variable?


mo = expression.match(line)
if mo:
...


Many problems become trivial when we stop trying to fit everything into a
single line :)

if expression1.match(line) = results:
results.groupsdict()...

Obviously the above won't work - however, is there a Pythonic way to
tackle this?

Yes. Stop trying to fit everything into a single line :)

I would approach the problem like this:


LOOKUP_TABLE = {expression1: do_something,
expression2: do_something_else,
expression3: function3,
expression4: function4, # etc.
}

with open('log.txt') as f:
for line in f:
for expr, func in LOOKUP_TABLE.items():
mo = expr.match(line)
if mo:
func(line, mo)
break
else:
# If we get here, we never reached the break.
raise SomeException


If you don't like having that many top level functions, you could make
them methods of a class.


If you only have two or three expressions to test, and the body of each
if clause is small, it's probably too much effort to write functions for
each one. In that case, I'd stick to the slightly more verbose form:

with open('log.txt') as f:
for line in f:
mo = expression1.match(line)
if mo:
do_this()
do_that()
mo = expression2.match(line)
if mo:
do_something_else()
mo = expression3.match(line)
if mo:
fe()
fi()
fo()
fum()
else:
raise SomeException




What I'm trying to avoid is this:

if expression1.match(line):
results = expression1.match(line)

which I assume would call the regex match against the line twice

Correct.
 
P

Peter Otten

Victor said:
Hi,

I have logline that I need to test against multiple regexes. E.g.:

import re

expression1 = re.compile(r'....')
expression2 = re.compile(r'....')

with open('log.txt') as f:
for line in f:
if expression1.match(line):
# Do something - extract fields from line.
elif expression2.match(line):
# Do something else - extract fields from line.
else:
# Oh noes! Raise exception.

However, in the "Do something" section - I need access to the match object
itself, so that I can strip out certain fields from the line.

Is it possible to somehow test for a match, as well as do assignment of
the re match object to a variable?

if expression1.match(line) = results:
results.groupsdict()...

Obviously the above won't work - however, is there a Pythonic way to
tackle this?

What I'm trying to avoid is this:

if expression1.match(line):
results = expression1.match(line)

which I assume would call the regex match against the line twice - and
when I'm dealing with a huge amount of log lines, slow things down.

(1)
for line in f:
match = expression1.match(line)
if match:
# ...
continue
match = expression2.match(line)
if match:
# ...
continue
raise NothingMatches

(2)
import re

class Matcher:
def __call__(self, expr, line):
result = self.match = expr.match(line)
return result
def __getattr__(self, name):
return getattr(self.match, name)

match = Matcher()

for line in f:
if match(expression1, line):
print(match.groupdict())
elif match(expression2, line):
print(match.group(1))
else:
raise NothingMatches
 
A

Alain Ketterlin

Victor Hooi said:
expression1 = re.compile(r'....')
expression2 = re.compile(r'....')
[...]

Just a quick remark: regular expressions are pretty powerful at
representing alternatives. You could just stick everything inside a
single re, as in '...|...'

Then use the returned match to check which alternative was recognized
(make sure you have at least one group in each alternative).
Is it possible to somehow test for a match, as well as do assignment
of the re match object to a variable?

Yes, use '...(...)...' and MatchObject.group(). See the other messages.

-- Alain.
 
A

Arnaud Delobelle

Victor Hooi said:
expression1 = re.compile(r'....')
expression2 = re.compile(r'....')
[...]

Just a quick remark: regular expressions are pretty powerful at
representing alternatives. You could just stick everything inside a
single re, as in '...|...'
Then use the returned match to check which alternative was recognized
(make sure you have at least one group in each alternative).
Yes, and for extra ease/clarity you can name these alternatives (
'(?P<name>pattern)'). Then you can do

if m.group('case1'):
...
elif m.group('case2'):
...
 
N

Neil Cerutti

Victor Hooi said:
expression1 = re.compile(r'....')
expression2 = re.compile(r'....')
[...]

Just a quick remark: regular expressions are pretty powerful at
representing alternatives. You could just stick everything
inside a single re, as in '...|...'

Then use the returned match to check which alternative was
recognized (make sure you have at least one group in each
alternative).

Yes, but in a Python program it's more straightforward to program
in Python. ;)

But this is from a grade A regex avoider, so take it with a small
chunk of sodium.

One way to attack this problem that's not yet been explicitly
mentioned is to match using a generator function:

def match_each(s, re_seq):
for r in re_seq:
yield r.match(s)

And later something like:

for match in match_each(s, (expression1, expression2, expression3)):
if match:
print(match.groups()) # etc...
 
M

Mitya Sirenef

(2)
import re

class Matcher:
def __call__(self, expr, line):
result = self.match = expr.match(line)
return result
def __getattr__(self, name):
return getattr(self.match, name)


Perhaps it's a little simpler to do this?
self.match = expr.match(line)
return self.match


-m
 

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