ANN: Sequel 2.2.0 Released


Jeremy Evans

Sequel is a lightweight database access toolkit for Ruby.

* Sequel provides thread safety, connection pooling and a concise DSL
for constructing database queries and table schemas.
* Sequel also includes a lightweight but comprehensive ORM layer for
mapping records to Ruby objects and handling associated records.
* Sequel makes it easy to deal with multiple records without having
to break your teeth on SQL.
* Sequel currently has adapters for ADO, DB2, DBI, Informix, JDBC,
MySQL, ODBC, OpenBase, Oracle, PostgreSQL and SQLite3.

Sequel 2.2.0 has been released and should be available on the gem
mirrors. 2.2.0 has the following exciting new features:

The Most Powerful and Flexible Associations of Any Ruby ORM

Sequel can now support any association type supported by
ActiveRecord, and many association types ActiveRecord doesn't

Association callbacks :)before_add, :after_add, :before_remove,
:after_remove) have been added, and work for all association
types. Each of the callback options can be a Symbol specifying an
instance method that takes one argument (the associated object), or a
Proc that takes two arguments (the current object and the associated
object), or an array of Symbols and Procs. Additionally, an
:after_load callback is available, which is running after loading the
associated record(s) from the database.

Association extensions are now supported:

class FindOrCreate
def find_or_create(vals)
first(vals) || create(vals)
class Author < Sequel::Model
one_to_many :authorships, :extend=>FindOrCreate

Sequel has been able to support most has_many :through style
associations since 1.3, via many_to_many (since it doesn't break on
join tables that are also model tables, unlike ActiveRecord's
has_and_belongs_to_many). Now it can also support has_many :through
style associations where it goes through a has_many association.

Sequel can now support polymorphic associations. Polymorphic
associations are really a design flaw, so Sequel doesn't support them
directly, but the tools that Sequel gives you make them pretty easy
to implement.

Sequel can also support associations that ActiveRecord does not. For
example, a belongs_to association where the column referenced in the
associated table is not the primary key, an association that depends
on multiple columns in each table, or even situations where the
association has a column in the primary table that can be referenced
by any of multiple columns in a second table that has a has_one style
association with the table you want to associate with.

Some of those associations can be supported for a single object using
custom SQL in ActiveRecord, but none are supported when eager
loading or allow further filtering.

Not only can all of these cases be supported with Sequel::Model, all
can be supported with eager loading, and can allow for further
filtering. See
for details and example code for all association types covered above.

There have also been many additional options added for controlling
eager loading via eager_graph. Every part of the SQL JOINs can now
be controlled via one of the options, so you can use JOIN USING,
NATURAL JOIN, or arbitrary JOIN ON conditions.

Finally, just to show off the power that Sequel gives you when eager
loading, here is example code that will eagerly load all descendants
and ancestors in a tree structure, without knowing the depth of the

class Node < Sequel::Model
set_schema do
primary_key :id
foreign_key :parent_id, :nodes

many_to_one :parent
one_to_many :children, :key=>:parent_id

# Only useful when eager loading
many_to_one :ancestors, :eager_loader=>(proc do |key_hash, nodes,
# Handle cases where the root node has the same parent_id as
# and also when it is NULL
non_root_nodes = nodes.reject do |n|
if [nil,].include?(n.parent_id)
# Make sure root nodes have their parent association set to
n.associations[:parent] = nil
unless non_root_nodes.empty?
id_map = {}
# Create an map of parent_ids to nodes that have that parent id
non_root_nodes.each{|n| (id_map[n.parent_id] ||= []) << n}
# Doesn't cause an infinte loop, because when only the root node
# is left, this is not called.
do |node|
# Populate the parent association for each node
id_map[].each{|n| n.associations[:parent] = node}
many_to_one :descendants, :eager_loader=>(proc do |key_hash, nodes,
id_map = {}
nodes.each do |n|
# Initialize an empty array of child associations for each
parent node
n.associations[:children] = []
# Populate identity map of nodes
id_map[] = n
# Doesn't cause an infinite loop, because the :eager_loader is not
# if no records are returned. Exclude id = parent_id to avoid
infinite loop
# if the root note is one of the returned records and it has
parent_id = id
# instead of parent_id = NULL.
do |node|
# Get the parent from the identity map
parent = id_map[node.parent_id]
# Set the child's parent association to the parent
node.associations[:parent] = parent
# Add the child association to the array of children in the
parent.associations[:children] << node

nodes = Node.filter:)id < 10).eager:)ancestors, :descendants).all

New Adapter Features

* PostgreSQL bytea fields are now fully supported.

* The PostgreSQL adapter now uses the safer connection-specific
string escaping if you are using ruby-pg.

* The SQLite adapter supports drop_column and add_index.

* You can now use URL parameters in the connection string, enabling
you to connect to PostgreSQL via a socket using

Other New Features

* Dataset#graph now takes a block which it passes to join_table.

* Symbol#identifier has been added, which can be used if another
library defines the same operator(s) on Symbol that Sequel defines.

* Filter blocks now yield a VirtualRow instance, which can yield
Identifiers, QualifiedIdentifiers, or Functions. Like
Symbol#identifier, this is useful if another library defines the
same operator(s) on Symbol that Sequel defines.

* You can now call Model.to_hash to get an identity map for all
rows (before this required Model.dataset.to_hash).

* A model that can get it's column information from the schema will
set it in the dataset, potentially saving many queries.

* Model.validates_presence_of now works correctly for boolean

Notable Bug Fixes

* Caching now works with Model subclasses.

* Model validation methods now work with source reloading.

* The PostgreSQL adapter no longer raises an Error if you try to
insert a record with the primary key already specified.

* Sequel no longer messes with the native MySQL adapter, so you can
use Sequel and ActiveRecord with MySQL in the same process.

* Dataset#count now works correctly for limited dataset.

* PostgreSQL Database#transaction method yields a connection, similar
to the other adapters.

* Using a hash argument in #distinct, #order, or #group is treated
as an expression instead of a column alias.

* Cloned datasets no longer ignore the existing columns unless it is

* The :quote_identifiers and :single_threaded Database options now
work correctly.

Backwards Incompatible Changes

* ParseTree support, deprecated in 2.1.0, has been removed in 2.2.0.
You should use the expression filter syntax instead, perferably
without the block (though it can be used inside a block as well).
This usually involves the following types of changes:

filter{:x == :y} => filter:)x => :y)
filter{:x << :y} => filter:)x => :y)
filter{:x && :y} => filter:)x & :y) # Don't forget about change
filter{:x || :y} => filter:)x | :y) # in operator precedence
filter{'%blah%')} => filter:)'%blah%'))
filter do => filter(:)x > 1) & :)y < 2))
:x > 1
:y < 2

* Attempts to save an invalid Model instance will raise an error by
default. To revert to returning a nil value, use:

Sequel::Model.raise_on_save_failure = false # Global
Album.raise_on_save_failure = false # Class
album =
album.raise_on_save_failure = false # Instance

Note that before, save would return false where now it returns nil
if you disable raising on save failure.

* Dataset#update no longer takes a block, as it's use of the block
depended on ParseTree. With the introduction of the expression
syntax in 2.0.0, it's no longer necessary. You should use a hash
with an expression as the value instead:

DB[:table].update:)column=>:column + 1)

* validates_presence of now considers false as present instead of
absent. This is so it works with boolean columns.

* Dataset#graph ignores any previously selected columns when it is
called for the first time.

* Dataset#columns ignores any filtering, ordering, or distinct
clauses. This shouldn't cause issues unless you were using
SQL functions with side effects and expecting them to be called
when columns was called (unlikely at best).

One significant point of note is that the 2.2.0 release will be the
last release with both a sequel_core and sequel gem. Starting
with 2.3.0 they will be combined into one sequel gem. You will still
be able to get just the sequel_core part by requiring 'sequel_core',
but they will be packaged together.

If you have any questions, please post on the Google Group.


* {Source code}[]
* {Bug tracking}[]
* {Google group}[]
* {RDoc}[]

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