Indexed list

D

Daniele Pini

Please consider the following random access container wrapper:


template<typename T, typename Cont = std::vector<T> >
class indexed_list
{
class _node
{
aligned_POD_for<T> content;
size_t previousNodeIdx, nextNodeIdx;

public:

// Appropriate copy/move constructors and assignment,
// when content actually holds a constructed T instance
// (* see below)
};

private:

Cont theWrappedContainer;
size_t topOfReleasedNodesStackIdx;

public:

// Base node acquire/release functions

size_t acquireNode();
void releaseNode(size_t nodeIdx);

// .. The rest just implements a double-linked list concept,
// with special mention to ..

// Push functions return the index to the newly inserted object
size_t push_back(const T& t);
size_t push_front(const T& t);

// By symmetry, a pop_back overload could accept an index, too
void pop_back(size_t idx);

// Just implement as swap(indexed_list(begin(), end()), *this),
// 'disentangles' the list and squeezes released nodes out.
void shrink_to_fit();

// A SFINAEd version of reserve() would be good in case Cont
// implements it

public:

class iterator
{
indexed_list* theList;
size_t currentIdx;

public:

// .. Implement a standard-conforming bidirectional list
// iterator ..
}
};


Here 'aligned_POD_for<T>' stands for a POD struct with the same
alignment and size of type T - in C++11 terms it could be
implemented as std::aligned_memory<std::align_of<T> > if I don't
get it wrong (still bound to C++03 at work, but even then there
are workarounds to get the same thing done).


The acquire/releaseNode() functions obviously apply placement
new and manual destruction of the nodes' content.

The acquireNode() function either pulls a node from the stack of
nodes released through the releaseNode() function or calls
Cont::push_back when said stack is empty.

The stack of released nodes can be easily crammed inside the
wrapped container itself, by making one of the nodes' 'linking
indexes', say _node::nextNodeIdx, reference the node immediately
lower on the stack upon release.


Finally, we can reserve certain index values like size_t(-1) to
make it the equivalent of nullptr in a common list implementation,
and size_t(-2) on _node::previousNodeIdx to tell whether a node
has been released.

Reserving special indexes is somewhat better than making a new
node member in this particular case - to keep the node size
minimal.

This is also why std::eek:ptional<T> should not be used for
_node::content, since I guess its implementation must rely on a
small variable flag to tell whether it currently stores valid
content or not. That would be especially wasteful due to padding.


(*) Note that when a node has not been released, it must apply
the appropriate copy/move/assignment operations on its content.



That's it. Now consider:

1. It is a 'lazy' container class, in the sense that it does
not release previously allocated nodes but rather silently
marks them as unused.

That's similar to what std::vector does.

This can be beneficial in highly dynamic scenarios, where
stored elements are frequently released and inserted.

2. It's a cache-friendlier implementation than std::list, that
does not force the internal adoption of a custom allocator.

Of course, the 'cache-friendliness' depends on how much
scattered the node connections are.

It has roughly the same memory overhead of std::list -
except for all those released nodes.

3. It achieves iterators stability through indexes rather than
pointers.

In particular, copying an indexed_list does not invalidate
EXTERNAL 'references' (read indexes) into the list.

The indexed_list::shrink_to_fit function would be the ONLY
iterators/indices-invalidating one.

4. In case Cont = std::deque, indexed_list provides stable
element pointers, too.

5. One may consider the index returned upon element insertion
as the key to access the element. Or, indexed_list shows
a kind of 'auto-associative' behavior.



A notable use case:

template<typename V, typename E, typename F>
class indexed_graph
{
// IMPLICIT copy/move/assignment, O(1) cost in elements
// insertion, removal and access.

indexed_list<V> vertexes;
indexed_list<E> edges;
indexed_list<F> faces;

public:

// ...

void shrink_to_fit(); // The only slightly trickier
// part due to re-indexing
};



Ever heard or seen some library container like this?
 

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