The CMWC4827 RNG, an improvement on MWC4691.

G

geo

In August 2010 I posted descriptions of a MWC
(Multiply-With-Carry) RNG based on, with b=2^32,
the prime p=8193b^4691-1. With an apparently
very long period and multiplier a=(2^13+1), the
basic MWC operation could be carried out using only
32-bit operations: given 32-bit c and x, imagine
t=a*x+c in 64 bits, determine the new c and new x
as the top and bottom 32-bits of t.

There were two drawbacks: rare nuisance cases that
had to be accommodated, and no proof of the order of b
for the prime p, the period of the RNG. We can be
almost---but not quite---certain that the order of
b mod p is k=(p-1)/2, since b^k mod p = 1 and for each
attainable prime divisor q of k---that is, with q one
of 431,18413, 15799501,1505986643549,
2883504568596254032007909, b^(k/q) mod p is not 1.
(My thanks to Darío Alejandro Alpern of Buenos Aires for
providing the larger, and estimates on future, factors.)

But there are at least two more, presently unattainable,
prime divisors of k, each with at least 30 digits.
With z a primitive root of p and b=z^j, the chances of j
being a multiple of one of those unknown prime divisors
of k seem less than 1/10^30. So we can be reasonably---
indeed, very---confident that the Industrial Grade Order.
(IGO) of b is (p-1)/2 for the prime p=8193b^4691-1.

So, with nuisance cases and uncertainties in mind, I put
three computers to work searching for a prime of the
form p=a*b^r+1, with a=2^i-1, to avoid the nuisance
cases arising from a=2^13+1, and p=(2^i-1)*b^r+1 so
that factoring p-1 would be feasible when r>4000.

After about 5 days, one of them found p=4095*b^4827+1.
And it turned out that the order of b mod p was the
maximum possible, k=(p-1)/2^6, (since we "lose" one 2
because 2 cannot be primitive, and must lose at least
five more because b=2^5 and k is 4095*2^154458).
Thus b^k mod p = 1, and for each prime divisor q of k,
q=2,3,5,7,13: b^(k/q) mod p is not 1.

Unlike p=ab^r-1, a prime of the form p=ab^r+1 leads
to CMWC (Complimentary-Multiply-With-Carry) RNGs, in
which we again imagine forming t=a*x+c in 64 bits and
again seek c as the top 32 bits, but rather than
x=(t mod b) for MWC, the new x is x=(b-1)-(t mod b),
that is x=~(t mod b), using C's ~ op.

Here is a C version of the resulting CMWC method for
p=4095*b^4827+1, using only 32-bit arithmetic, with
verified period 4095*2^154458, faster and simpler than
the previously posted MWC4691() and readily adapted
for either signed or unsigned integers and for Fortran
or other programming languages:
_________________________________________________________

#include <stdio.h>

static unsigned long Q[4827],carry=1271;

unsigned long CMWC4827(void)
{unsigned long t,x; static int j=4827;
j=(j<4826)? j+1:0;
x=Q[j]; t=(x<<12)+carry;
carry=(x>>20)-(t<x);
return (Q[j]=~(t-x));
}

#define CNG ( cng=69069*cng+13579 )
#define XS ( xs^=(xs<<13), xs^=(xs>>17), xs^=(xs<<5) )
#define KISS4827 ( CMWC4827()+CNG+XS )

int main(void)
{unsigned long int i,x,cng=123456789,xs=362436069;
/* First seed Q[] with CNG+XS: */
for(i=0;i<4827;i++) Q=CNG+XS;
/* Then generate 10^9 CMWC4827()s */
for(i=0;i<1000000000;i++) x=CMWC4827();
printf("Does x=1346668762?\n x=%lu\n",x);
/* followed by 10^9 KISS4827s: */
for(i=0;i<1000000000;i++) x=KISS4827;
printf("Does x=4041198809?\n x=%lu\n",x);

return 0;
}
______________________________________________________

Getting 10^9 CMWC4827s should take less than four seconds,
while 10^9 KISS4827s should take less than seven seconds.

For signed integers, replace that single (t<x) by (t'<x'),
where t' means flip the sign bit: t^(1<<31) for C
or ieor(t,ishft(1,-31)) for Fortran,
(or use hex 10000000 to specify the bit to be flipped).

CMWC4827() used alone will pass all tests in
the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness
www.cs.hku.hk/~diehard/
But as any RNG based on a single mathematical structure
is likely to have potential flaws---such as, but
perhaps not as striking as congruential RNGs "falling
mainly in the planes"---I advocate the KISS
(Keep-It-Simple-Stupid) approach: combine with
Congruential and Xorshift sequences invoked inline.

Why not splurge at a cost of 3 nanoseconds?

George Marsaglia
 
D

Dann Corbit

In August 2010 I posted descriptions of a MWC
(Multiply-With-Carry) RNG based on, with b=2^32,
the prime p=8193b^4691-1. With an apparently
very long period and multiplier a=(2^13+1), the
basic MWC operation could be carried out using only
32-bit operations: given 32-bit c and x, imagine
t=a*x+c in 64 bits, determine the new c and new x
as the top and bottom 32-bits of t.

There were two drawbacks: rare nuisance cases that
had to be accommodated, and no proof of the order of b
for the prime p, the period of the RNG. We can be
almost---but not quite---certain that the order of
b mod p is k=(p-1)/2, since b^k mod p = 1 and for each
attainable prime divisor q of k---that is, with q one
of 431,18413, 15799501,1505986643549,
2883504568596254032007909, b^(k/q) mod p is not 1.
(My thanks to Darío Alejandro Alpern of Buenos Aires for
providing the larger, and estimates on future, factors.)

But there are at least two more, presently unattainable,
prime divisors of k, each with at least 30 digits.
With z a primitive root of p and b=z^j, the chances of j
being a multiple of one of those unknown prime divisors
of k seem less than 1/10^30. So we can be reasonably---
indeed, very---confident that the Industrial Grade Order.
(IGO) of b is (p-1)/2 for the prime p=8193b^4691-1.

So, with nuisance cases and uncertainties in mind, I put
three computers to work searching for a prime of the
form p=a*b^r+1, with a=2^i-1, to avoid the nuisance
cases arising from a=2^13+1, and p=(2^i-1)*b^r+1 so
that factoring p-1 would be feasible when r>4000.

After about 5 days, one of them found p=4095*b^4827+1.
And it turned out that the order of b mod p was the
maximum possible, k=(p-1)/2^6, (since we "lose" one 2
because 2 cannot be primitive, and must lose at least
five more because b=2^5 and k is 4095*2^154458).
Thus b^k mod p = 1, and for each prime divisor q of k,
q=2,3,5,7,13: b^(k/q) mod p is not 1.

Unlike p=ab^r-1, a prime of the form p=ab^r+1 leads
to CMWC (Complimentary-Multiply-With-Carry) RNGs, in
which we again imagine forming t=a*x+c in 64 bits and
again seek c as the top 32 bits, but rather than
x=(t mod b) for MWC, the new x is x=(b-1)-(t mod b),
that is x=~(t mod b), using C's ~ op.

I encapsulated things a bit, so that the code to call the prng is not
interspersed among the main program.

static unsigned long Q[4827],
carry = 1271,
cng = 123456789,
xs = 362436069;

unsigned long scramble()
{
return (cng = 69069 * cng + 13579) + (xs ^= (xs << 13), xs ^= (xs >>
17), xs ^= (xs << 5));
}

void initCMWC4827(void)
{
unsigned long int i;

for (i = 0; i < 4827; i++)
Q = scramble();
}

unsigned long CMWC4827(void)
{
unsigned long t,
x;
static int j = 4827;
j = (j < 4826) ? j + 1 : 0;
x = Q[j];
t = (x << 12) + carry;
carry = (x >> 20) - (t < x);
return (Q[j] = ~(t - x));
}

#ifdef UNIT_TEST
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
unsigned long int i,
x =0;

initCMWC4827();

for (i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++)
x = CMWC4827();
printf("Does x=1346668762?\n x=%lu\n", x);

for (i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++)
x = (CMWC4827() + scramble());
printf("Does x=4041198809?\n x=%lu\n", x);

return 0;
}
#endif

/*
C:\tmp>cl /DUNIT_TEST /W4 /Ox k8.c
Microsoft (R) C/C++ Optimizing Compiler Version 16.00.30319.01 for x64
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

k8.c
Microsoft (R) Incremental Linker Version 10.00.30319.01
Copyright (C) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

/out:k8.exe
k8.obj

C:\tmp>k8
Does x=1346668762?
x=1346668762
Does x=4041198809?
x=4041198809

C:\tmp>
*/
 
J

Jens Thoms Toerring

In comp.lang.c Dann Corbit said:
(e-mail address removed)>, (e-mail address removed) says...

I encapsulated things a bit, so that the code to call the prng is not
interspersed among the main program.
static unsigned long Q[4827],
carry = 1271,
cng = 123456789,
xs = 362436069;
unsigned long scramble()
{
return (cng = 69069 * cng + 13579) + (xs ^= (xs << 13), xs ^= (xs >>
17), xs ^= (xs << 5));
}
void initCMWC4827(void)
{
unsigned long int i;
for (i = 0; i < 4827; i++)
Q = scramble();
}

unsigned long CMWC4827(void)
{
unsigned long t,
x;
static int j = 4827;
j = (j < 4826) ? j + 1 : 0;
x = Q[j];
t = (x << 12) + carry;
carry = (x >> 20) - (t < x);
return (Q[j] = ~(t - x));
}
#ifdef UNIT_TEST
#include <stdio.h>
int main(void)
{
unsigned long int i,
x =0;
initCMWC4827();

for (i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++)
x = CMWC4827();
printf("Does x=1346668762?\n x=%lu\n", x);
for (i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++)
x = (CMWC4827() + scramble());
printf("Does x=4041198809?\n x=%lu\n", x);
return 0;
}
#endif

Based on Dann Corbit's version here's a C (C89) and C++ version
that also (seems to?) work on 64-bit machines (that's what all
the ANDing with 0xFFFFFFFFLU is about):

========= CMWC.c =====================================

static unsigned long int Q[ 4827 ];

unsigned long
scramble( )
{
static unsigned long int cng = 123456789LU;
static unsigned long int xs = 362436069LU;

cng = ( 69069 * cng + 13579 ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
return ( cng + ( xs ^= ( xs << 13 ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU,
xs ^= ( xs >> 17 ),
xs ^= ( xs << 5 ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU ) ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
}

void
initCMWC4827( void )
{
unsigned int i;

for ( i = 0; i < 4827; i++ )
Q[ i ] = scramble( );
}

unsigned long int
CMWC4827( void )
{
static int j = 4827;
static unsigned long int carry = 1271LU;

unsigned long int x = Q[ j = j < 4826 ? j + 1 : 0 ],
t = ( ( x << 12 ) + carry ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;

carry = ( x >> 20 ) - ( ( t < x ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU );
return Q[ j ] = ~ ( t - x ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
}


#ifdef UNIT_TEST
#include <stdio.h>
int
main( void )
{
unsigned long int i,

initCMWC4827( );

for ( i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++ )
x = CMWC4827( );
printf( "Does x=1346668762?\n x=%lu\n", x );

for ( i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++ )
x = ( CMWC4827( ) + scramble( ) ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
printf( "Does x=4041198809?\n x=%lu\n", x );

return 0;
}

#endif

========= CMWC.c =====================================

========= CMWC.cpp ===================================

class CMWC4827
{
public:

CMWC4827( ) :
cng( 123456789LU ),
xs( 362436069LU ),
carry( 1271LU ),
j( 4827 )
{
for ( int i = 0; i < 4827; i++ )
Q[ i ] = scramble( );
}

unsigned long int
next( )
{
unsigned long int x = Q[ j = j < 4826 ? j + 1 : 0 ],
t = ( ( x << 12 ) + carry ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;

carry = ( x >> 20 ) - ( ( t < x ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU );
return Q[ j ] = ~ ( t - x ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
}

unsigned long int
nextWithScramble( )
{
return ( next( ) + scramble( ) ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
}

private:

unsigned long int
scramble( )
{
cng = ( 69069 * cng + 13579 ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
return ( cng + ( xs ^= ( xs << 13 ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU,
xs ^= ( xs >> 17 ),
xs ^= ( xs << 5 ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU ) ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;
}

unsigned long int Q[ 4827 ];
unsigned long int cng;
unsigned long int xs;
unsigned long int carry;
int j;
};


#ifdef UNIT_TEST
#include <iostream>

int
main( )
{
CMWC4827 rgen;
unsigned long int x;

for ( unsigned long int i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++ )
x = rgen.next( );
std::cout << "Does x = 1346668762?\n x = " << x << '\n';

for ( unsigned long int i = 0; i < 1000000000; i++ )
x = rgen.nextWithScramble( );
std::cout << "Does x = 4041198809?\n x = " << x << '\n';

return 0;
}

#endif

========= CMWC.cpp ===================================

Does anyone has a better idea how to get rid/deal more effectively
with 64-issues? Of course if one could assume the existence of a
uint32_t things would be simple, but that requires C99 or C++0x...

Regards, Jens
 
I

Ian Collins

Here is a C version of the resulting CMWC method for
p=4095*b^4827+1, using only 32-bit arithmetic, with
verified period 4095*2^154458, faster and simpler than
the previously posted MWC4691() and readily adapted
for either signed or unsigned integers and for Fortran
or other programming languages:

I strongly recommend you use the standard fixed width types if your code
is designed for 32 bit arithmetic. Your code will then port to 64 bit
systems without modification.
 
I

Ian Collins

Based on Dann Corbit's version here's a C (C89) and C++ version
that also (seems to?) work on 64-bit machines (that's what all
the ANDing with 0xFFFFFFFFLU is about):
It's much simpler just to replace "unsigned long" with "uint32_t". Then
you don't have to mess with masks, the same code works "as is" in either
32 or 64 bit compiles.
Does anyone has a better idea how to get rid/deal more effectively
with 64-issues? Of course if one could assume the existence of a
uint32_t things would be simple, but that requires C99 or C++0x...

Ah, I didn't see this until I'd written the above! Most if not all
common platforms have uint32_t defined in their system headers (either
in C99's <stdint.h> or elsewhere). If a platform doesn't have them,
they are trivial to define in your own header. Much better than messing
with masks! More so on annoying systems that have 32 bit longs even in
64 bit mode, where the masks only waste cycles, assuming they aren't
optimised away.
 
J

Jens Thoms Toerring

In comp.lang.c Ian Collins said:
Ah, I didn't see this until I'd written the above! Most if not all
common platforms have uint32_t defined in their system headers (either
in C99's <stdint.h> or elsewhere). If a platform doesn't have them,
they are trivial to define in your own header.

Mmm, how do you do that without knowing anything about the
platform? And how to distinguish between uint32_t already
being defined or not? I would love to see some clean way to
do that. Of course, if you can use some kind of configure
script it's not too complicated, but I'm curious if there
is a way to get it right without that (even on machines that
may just have a C89 (or C++98) conforming compiler.
Much better than messing with masks!

Yes, definitely if possible;-)

Best regards, Jens
 
I

Ian Collins

Mmm, how do you do that without knowing anything about the
platform? And how to distinguish between uint32_t already
being defined or not? I would love to see some clean way to
do that. Of course, if you can use some kind of configure
script it's not too complicated, but I'm curious if there
is a way to get it right without that (even on machines that
may just have a C89 (or C++98) conforming compiler.

A configure script is the usual way to determine the presence of headers
or types within them (by attempting to compile a snippet that uses them).

Fixed width type definitions are totally platform and compile mode
specific unfortunately..
 
K

Keith Thompson

Mmm, how do you do that without knowing anything about the
platform? And how to distinguish between uint32_t already
being defined or not? I would love to see some clean way to
do that. Of course, if you can use some kind of configure
script it's not too complicated, but I'm curious if there
is a way to get it right without that (even on machines that
may just have a C89 (or C++98) conforming compiler.

Some years ago, Doug Gwyn published a set of files that implement
some C99 (then C9x) headers in C90.

http://www.lysator.liu.se/c/q8/

A simplified example of how you might define uint32_t (not tested):

#include <limits.h>
#if ULONG_MAX == 4294967295
typedef unsigned long uint32_t;
#elif UINT_MAX == 4294967295
typedef unsigned int uint32_t;
#elif USHRT_MAX == 4294967295
typedef unsigned short uint32_t
#elif UCHAR_MAX == 4294967295 /* unlikely */
typedef unsigned char uint32_t
#else
#error "Unable to determine type for uint32_t
#endif

This ignores padding bits and probably a few other possibilities.
 
I

Ilmari Karonen

into shifts if that is faster. I found that using "long" for "j" tends
to produce faster code on 64 bit implementations and doesn't change
anything on 32 bit implementations.

Since you're using C99 types anyway (and I agree that that's the
sensible thing to do), you might try using (u)int_fast16_t for j.
 
J

Jens Thoms Toerring

In comp.lang.c christian.bau said:
On Oct 22, 11:00 pm, (e-mail address removed) (Jens Thoms Toerring) wrote:
unsigned long int
CMWC4827( void )
{
    static int j = 4827;
    static unsigned long int carry = 1271LU;

    unsigned long int x = Q[ j = j < 4826 ? j + 1 : 0 ],
                      t = ( ( x << 12 ) + carry ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;

    carry = ( x >> 20 ) - ( ( t < x ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU );
    return Q[ j ] = ~ ( t - x ) & 0xFFFFFFFFLU;

}
It seems the original source code emulated 64 bit arithmetic using 32
bit arithmetic, and your code now uses 64 bit arithmetic to emulate 32
bit arithmetic emulating 64 bit arithmetic. I'd write, assuming that Q
is defined as uint32_t:
uint32_t CMWC4827 (void)
{
static long j = 4827;
static uint64_t carry = 1271;
if (++j >= 4827) j = 0;
uint64_t x = Q [j] * (uint64_t) 4095 + carry;
carry = x >> 32;
return (Q [j] = x);
}

I see. There's just an omission in the last line, it must be

return Q[ j ] = ~ x;

Now that's quite a bit faster;-)

Best regards, Jens
 
J

Jens Thoms Toerring

Some years ago, Doug Gwyn published a set of files that implement
some C99 (then C9x) headers in C90.

A simplified example of how you might define uint32_t (not tested):
#include <limits.h>
#if ULONG_MAX == 4294967295
typedef unsigned long uint32_t;
#elif UINT_MAX == 4294967295
typedef unsigned int uint32_t;
#elif USHRT_MAX == 4294967295
typedef unsigned short uint32_t
#elif UCHAR_MAX == 4294967295 /* unlikely */
typedef unsigned char uint32_t
#else
#error "Unable to determine type for uint32_t
#endif
This ignores padding bits and probably a few other possibilities.

Thanks, I will play around with these;-)

Best regards, Jens
 
J

Jens Thoms Toerring

Good idea. gcc 4.2 contains the following in its headers:
typedef int8_t int_fast8_t;
typedef int16_t int_fast16_t;
typedef int32_t int_fast32_t;
typedef int64_t int_fast64_t;
typedef uint8_t uint_fast8_t;
typedef uint16_t uint_fast16_t;
typedef uint32_t uint_fast32_t;
typedef uint64_t uint_fast64_t;
I can assure you that using int_fast16_t or uint_fast16_t for j with
these definitions will run slower than using "long" when using the gcc
compiler on an x86 32 or 64 bit processor. Which is sad. An
alternative approach would be not to use an integer j, but a pointer
which points to an element of the array Q.

Seems to be already corrected in gcc 4.4.3, there I have

/* Unsigned. */
typedef unsigned char uint_fast8_t;
#if __WORDSIZE == 64
typedef unsigned long int uint_fast16_t;
typedef unsigned long int uint_fast32_t;
typedef unsigned long int uint_fast64_t;
#else
typedef unsigned int uint_fast16_t;
typedef unsigned int uint_fast32_t;
__extension__
typedef unsigned long long int uint_fast64_t;
#endif

and I don't see any noticable difference between using long or
uint_fast32_t here.
Regards, Jens
 
G

geo

CMWC4827 RNG snipped
George Marsaglia

I tried to figure out the maths behind this, and I ended up with a
just slightly different algorithm:

The important number is p = 4095 * (2^32)^4827 + 1, which is a prime.
Let M = (2^32)^4827, then p = 4095 * M + 1. We can start with any
number 1 <= x < p, then replace x with (4095 x) modulo p, and again
and again. Each value x produces 4827 random integers of 32 bits. The
result x will never be 0.

A slight change: Instead of storing x, we store x-1. So instead of
replacing x with (4095 x) modulo p, we add 1 to x, calculate (4095 x)
modulo p, and subtract 1. So we calculate ((4095 (x+1)) modulo p) - 1
= (4095 x + 4094) modulo p. Really the same thing, but we now have 0
<= x < 4095 * M.

Now assume x = X + c * M, where 0 <= X < M, and 0 <= c < 4095. Then

    (4095 x + 4094) modulo p =
    (4095 * (X + c * M) + 4094) modulo p =
    (4095 * X + 4094 + c * (4095 M)) modulo p =
    (4095 * X + 4094 + c * (p - 1)) modulo p =
    (4095 * X + 4094 - c) modulo p =
    4095 * X + (4094 - c).

We store X in an array of 4827 32-bit integers and keep c separate.
Initialiase X to random integers and c to a random value from 0 to
4094. The random number calculation then is

unsigned long   CMWC4827(void)
{
    unsigned long   t,
                    x;
    static int      j = 4827;
    if (j < 4826) ++j; else { j = 0; c = 4094 - c; }
    x = Q[j];
    t = (x << 12) + carry;
    carry = (x >> 20) - (t < x);
    return (Q[j] = (t - x));

}

So the change is that we replace c with 4094-c when we restart at the
beginning of the array, and don't do the "not" operation in the
calculation of the next component of x. You could change this to use
64 bit arithmetic and write

uint32_t CMWC4827 (void)
{
    static long j = 4827;
    static uint64_t carry = 1271;
    if (++j >= 4827) { j = 0; carry = 4094 - carry; }
    uint64_t x = Q [j] * (uint64_t) 4095 + carry;
    carry = x >> 32;
    return (Q [j] = x);



}- Hide quoted text -

- Show quoted text -

With b=2^32 and p=4095*b^4827+1, your suggestion
will generate a sequence of 4827 "digits" forming,
in reverse order, the base-b expansion of j1/(p-2)
for some j1, then jump to another set of 4827 in
the expansion of j2/(p-2) for some other j2, and so on.
Such "digits" may well serve as satisfactory 32-bit
random integers, but we cannot be sure of the period,
or that we will avoid partial overlapping with string
segments already generated.

If you change your suggested method so as to keep
the old carry c---rather than reset c before
refilling the 4827 array---and go ahead with the
MWC rather than CMWC method, you will generate,
in reverse order, the full base-b MWC expansion of
j/m, with m=4095*b^4827-1 and period the order of b
for the composite m.

The CMWC method produces, in reverse order,
the full base-b=2^32 digits in the expansion of
some j/p, with p=4095*b^4827+1 and j determined by
the 4827 seed values and initial c in 0<=c<4095.

The order of b for the MWC method applied to m
probably differs from the CMWC order, 4095*2^154458,
by at most a few dozen powers of 10, and, with 10^46500,
we have 46,500 in hand.

But finding that IGO, (Industrial-Grade-Order), which
amounts to finding all, or all the up-to-30-digit
prime factors of m=4095*b^4827-1, say p1,p2,...,pn,
then
IGO = lcm(order(b,p1),order(b,p2)...,order(b,pn))
is difficult.

I have considered that approach, but using
m=a*b^4096-1, or even m=a*b^8192-1 with a=2^i-1,
so that one can more easily effect incrementing
the index of the array element.
With a couple of my PCs working on finding
up-to-30-digit factors of such composites,
I hope to report some interesting IGOs soon.

Can any of you, with time and factoring
programs available, find all---or all the
up-to-30-digit---prime factors of a*b^4096-1
or a*b^8192-1 with b=2^32 and a=2^i-1, for MWC?

Or the same for CMWC primes or composites,
a*b^4096+1 or a*b^8192+1?


George Marsaglia
 

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