# Java exceptions using recursive method

R

#### Rodusa

I am a beginner in java and I am having difficulty in understanding
the output below which uses exceptions and recursion. So far I was
able to understand the logic until line 10. After that I am lost. I
don't understand why is i being decremented? first it printed rec 1,
rec 2 , rec 3 and when it reached the exception it started to
decrement i like 3, 2, 1.

Rod

Output:

1. A(int)
2. B(int)
3. A()
4. B()
5. C()
6. 2
7. rec 1
8. rec 2
9. rec 3
10. Foo excepted
11. Handled in C -> i:3
12. Finally
13. Handled in C -> i:2
14. Finally
15. Handled in C -> i:1
16. Finally
17. Handled in Main

class A{
int x;
public A(){
x=2;
System.out.println("A()");
}

public A(int x){
this.x = x;
System.out.println("A(int)");
}

public void print(){
System.out.println(x);
}
}

class B extends A{
int x;
public B(){
x=5;
System.out.println("B()");
}

public B(int x){
super(x);
x=5;
System.out.println("B(int)");
}

public void foo() throws Exception{
System.out.println("Foo excepted");
throw new Exception();

}
}

class C extends B{
int x;
public C(){
x=1;
System.out.println("C()");
}

public void rec(int i) throws Exception{
System.out.println("rec " + i);
try{
if(i==3)
foo();
else
rec(i+1);
} catch(Exception e){
System.out.println("Handled in C -> i:" +i);
throw e;
} finally {
System.out.println("Finally");
}
}
}

class Main{
public static void main(String[] args){
try{
B b = new B(3);
C c = new C();
c.print();
c.rec(1);
} catch (Exception e){
System.out.println("Handled in Main");
}
}
}

P

#### Patricia Shanahan

Rodusa said:
I am a beginner in java and I am having difficulty in understanding
the output below which uses exceptions and recursion. So far I was
able to understand the logic until line 10. After that I am lost. I
don't understand why is i being decremented? first it printed rec 1,
rec 2 , rec 3 and when it reached the exception it started to
decrement i like 3, 2, 1.

Rod

Output:

1. A(int)
2. B(int)
3. A()
4. B()
5. C()
6. 2
7. rec 1
8. rec 2
9. rec 3
10. Foo excepted
11. Handled in C -> i:3
12. Finally
13. Handled in C -> i:2
14. Finally
15. Handled in C -> i:1
16. Finally
17. Handled in Main ....
public void rec(int i) throws Exception{
System.out.println("rec " + i);
try{
if(i==3)
foo();
else
rec(i+1);
} catch(Exception e){
System.out.println("Handled in C -> i:" +i);
throw e;
} finally {
System.out.println("Finally");
}
}
....

The stack can contain several invocations of rec, each with its own
value of i. Nothing is decrementing i, you are just getting reports from
older rec invocations.

Patricia

R

#### Rodusa

But until line 10 there was no exception which means that it can only
encounter one stop point where(i==3). At this point where foo is
called and execution is returned back to catch exception of rec
shouldn't the program just terminate at line 12. I don't get the
following lines?

Thanks

Rod

R

#### Rodusa

Patricia. I have deitel 7th edition but it is huge and too detailed. I
would like something simpler just to get the concepts.

You're right I think my problems is that I don't understand quite well
exceptions. Maybe because the recursive invocations that you're
talking about is what is making it difficult to understand.
For example why does Rec have to explicitly specify that it throws
Exception if it is going to throw anyways....?

Another thing I don't understand is why specify throw e if it is going