Memory corruption on freeing a pointer to pointer

Discussion in 'C Programming' started by Sharwan Joram, Aug 23, 2013.

  1. Sharwan Joram

    Ike Naar Guest

    There might be a non-habitual reason for putting the constant on
    the left. One can be non-dogmatic about the order of the operands
    for the == operator just as one can be non-dogmatic about their
    order in case of, say, the '+', the '*' or the '|' operators.
    Ike Naar, Aug 28, 2013
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  2. Sharwan Joram

    Phil Carmody Guest

    That's a subtle one. It doesn't look disgusting (so doesn't "jar",
    /per se/), but it definitely stands out as another one of those
    tell-tale signs that foretell /hic erunt plures dracones/.
    Next time I'm at my work machine, I'll check the file I was
    looking at the other day, to see if they do that or similar.

    Phil Carmody, Aug 28, 2013
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  3. Sharwan Joram

    Phil Carmody Guest

    Phil Carmody, Aug 28, 2013
  4. Sharwan Joram

    Phil Carmody Guest

    I can name at least half dialects between those extremely distant places!

    And express strong prejudices about all of them!!
    Absolutely. But I can still express strong prejudices about it
    (but it's plural, the 4 corners are all fairly distinct)!

    I like Ian, so he's off the hook :)

    Phil, ensuring he satisfies all obligatory prejudices.
    Phil Carmody, Aug 28, 2013
  5. For me, it depends on which form I personally find less awkward,
    which happens to be the form with the constant on the right.
    Keith Thompson, Aug 28, 2013
  6. Sharwan Joram

    Phil Carmody Guest

    It's not dogma, it's convention. I am familiar with
    the reasons why others adopt a different convention,
    and I find their reasons weak.

    What's 1 + 2 * 3?

    I adamantly support the convention that it is 7, but
    there are some who can quite justifiably claim it's 9.
    I find their convention inferior. I am in the majority.
    That doesn't make it dogma.

    Phil Carmody, Aug 28, 2013
  7. You keep using the word "dogma" when "preference" or "convention"
    would IMHO be more accurate.

    I see no reason to *prefer* putting the constant on the left other than
    avoidance of "=" vs. "==" problems.

    From your point of view, I would expect that consistently putting the
    constant on the left would be no better or worse than consistently
    putting it on the right.
    Keith Thompson, Aug 28, 2013
  8. I don't recall anyone claiming that it was.
    The page cites the 2001 census, which presumably reported the
    figures in that manner. I'm sure the census wasn't actually that
    precise (if nothing else, people were born and died while the census
    was in progress), but it would be very difficult (and beyond the
    scope of that article) to determine just how precise it really is.
    It seems reasonable to quote the raw figures rather than arbitrarily
    replacing the last N digits by zeros.
    Keith Thompson, Aug 28, 2013
  9. Sharwan Joram

    James Kuyper Guest

    I don't know of any source of information with those characteristics,
    and I wouldn't dream of thinking that this was such a source. Do you
    know of any such source?
    Wikipedia isn't responsible for those numbers or their accuracy or
    precision; it's only responsible for choosing appropriate authorities,
    and providing citations, which it has. In this case, the authority is
    the Indian 2001 Census. If you have objections to that number, contact
    the people who published that Census. The actual Census report should
    clearly identify what they think the accuracy of this figure was, and it
    shouldn't claim that it was accurate to the last digit.

    On the other hand, the Indians I've known have uniformly criticized the
    corruption of their own government - it's possible that the Census
    report was produced by political hacks who knew little or nothing about
    statistics, in which case I wouldn't even trust the first significant digit.

    Only if the citation is incorrect, or selected from an inappropriate
    authority, do you have any basis for criticizing Wikipedia. Do you think
    that the Indian Census is an inappropriate authority? Do you have reason
    to believe that this is not the correct number from that census report?
    James Kuyper, Aug 28, 2013
  10. Sharwan Joram

    James Kuyper Guest

    As they say: "In America, 100 years is a long time. In Britain, 100
    miles is a long distance."
    James Kuyper, Aug 28, 2013
  11. (snip)

    Many characteristics of our favorite programming languages
    trace back to Fortran. (One of the biggest, multiple character
    variable names, still hasn't been adopted by mathematics.)

    It does make sense that the original FORmula TRANslation
    adopted the associativity and precedence rules used in
    algebra. (Though it was a long time before Fortran allowed
    for associativity in exponentiation.)
    Some hand calculators don't have enough logic to keep track
    of such. A few programming languages also don't follow the
    usual conventions. One interesting one that doesn't is PL/360.

    -- glen
    glen herrmannsfeldt, Aug 28, 2013
  12. Sharwan Joram

    Ian Collins Guest

    Phew, what a relief!

    When I first came to live down here, the greatest compliment I was paid
    was "you don't sound like a Pom"!
    Ian Collins, Aug 28, 2013
  13. Sharwan Joram

    Ike Naar Guest

    In many places where I've seen the construct "let X = Y" it's used
    to introduce the name X as a placeholder for expression Y, not to
    express the equality of expressions X and Y.
    Definitions are not symmetric, and some authors use an asymmetric
    operator like ':=' instead of '=' for this reason.

    I just re-visited a popular mathematical web page [*] that happens
    to be in my bookmark list, and noticed it has quite a lot of
    equations with a constant on the left hand side.
    Notice, in particular, how equation (73) has the constant the right
    hand side, where equation (74) has the same constant on the left
    hand side of the equality operator. Neither of these equations
    looks jarring (to me).

    Ike Naar, Aug 28, 2013
  14. Sharwan Joram

    Ike Naar Guest

    Ike Naar, Aug 28, 2013
  15. The right side of your visual field goes to the left hemisphere first, the
    left side to the right. So actually changing the order changes the way
    we process the information. That's why languages which use the root
    consonant system are written right-left, whilst languages which use the
    prefix-stem-suffix system are written left-right. In the former, you want
    to see the root before you decipher the word, in the latter it's more
    Malcolm McLean, Aug 28, 2013
  16. The constant in question is pi (written as the Greek letter which I
    won't reproduce here for the sake of primitive newsreader software).

    Equation 74 is, roughly:

    pi = sqrt(6 * ( 1 + ... ) )

    Yes, pi is a mathematical constant, but that equation is not the same
    kind of thing you'd see in a C if statement. It's almost a definition
    of pi. More precisely, it's a way to compute its value, almost but not
    quite analogous to a C assignment rather than to an "==" equality
    comparison. ("==" asks whether two expressions are equal; a
    mathematical equation *asserts* that they're equal.)

    It makes perfect sense, even to me, to put the constant on the left side
    -- for reasons that don't apply to `if (NULL == ptr)` in C.

    As for equation 73, it's of the form:

    [formula] = [another formula] = pi

    and it appears (if I understand it) to be a left-to-right derivation, so
    the order is logically significant, at least to a human reader.

    TL;DR: Mathematical equations are not C equality tests.
    Keith Thompson, Aug 29, 2013
  17. F90. But .EQ. and friends remain also available (and fill the dusty
    decks off to the horizon, or something like that).

    As I believe glen noted elsethread, there's no ambiguity in Fortran
    because it allows assignment only as a (top-level) statement not a
    (nestable) expression.
    David Thompson, Aug 29, 2013
  18. Java didn't invent this; algol68 has a distinct boolean type (although
    I don't recall if this case is coercible) and does have nestable
    assignment, but (canonically) using := which is harder to mistake.

    Fortran>=77 also has boolean, as do Pascal and Ada, but they have (as
    you noted) assignment as a statement not a (sub)expression, plus the
    latter two use := . I don't know about the other Wirth languages.

    The only non-C-family language I know to use integer 1/0 for boolean
    is APL. FORTH uses integer nonzero/0 with a preference for -1 as the
    nonzero, but FORTH is almost as typeless as BCPL, plus the syntax for
    both assignment and if are radically different from C.
    David Thompson, Aug 29, 2013
  19. I agree on strcmp, partly because it's ternary (as you note
    downthread) but I think mostly because 'compare' doesn't connote to me
    which case is true. If it had been named strunequal or strdifferent --
    still returning 0 for equal and >0 or <0 for the two different types
    of unequal -- I would be happy to write it as a pseudo-boolean in the
    cases where I only care about equal/unequal, which I estimate is well
    over half, and write the >0 or <0 only when I care about direction.
    But those names would have been too long in PDP-11 days; strdiff works
    for me about as well as memcpy, but struneq just looks silly.

    OTOH I disagree about pointers. Maybe it's a fair bit of LISPing, but
    the first attribute I think of about almost any pointer, regardless of
    target type, is possible nullness. I find ptr or !ptr natural, but I'm
    also fine with !=NULL and ==NULL if the style uses that.
    Probably not for a simple case like that, and the first 2 or 3 times I
    read such it did slow me up a bit before I got used to it.

    But if s is more complicated -- maybe if enough to put the ==5 way to
    the right and definitely if enough to put it on a subsequent line -- I
    would be much more likely to keep the 5 'up front'. OTOH in those
    cases I might consider doing the complicated part in a separate
    assignment and reducing it to the simple case -- at least for if;
    comparable cases in while and for are harder.
    David Thompson, Aug 29, 2013
  20. I can't get gfortran to accept it, and I can't find it in the 2008 draft
    standard (the first one I could find for no money). == yes, that's been
    around for some time.
    Ben Bacarisse, Aug 29, 2013
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