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PerlFAQ Server
This is an excerpt from the latest version perlfaq6.pod, which
comes with the standard Perl distribution. These postings aim to
reduce the number of repeated questions as well as allow the community
to review and update the answers. The latest version of the complete
perlfaq is at http://faq.perl.org .

6.12: Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
(contributed by brian d foy)
Your first try should probably be the "Text::Balanced" module, which is
in the Perl standard library since Perl 5.8. It has a variety of
functions to deal with tricky text. The "Regexp::Common" module can also
help by providing canned patterns you can use.
As of Perl 5.10, you can match balanced text with regular expressions
using recursive patterns. Before Perl 5.10, you had to resort to various
tricks such as using Perl code in "(??{})" sequences.
Here's an example using a recursive regular expression. The goal is to
capture all of the text within angle brackets, including the text in
nested angle brackets. This sample text has two "major" groups: a group
with one level of nesting and a group with two levels of nesting. There
are five total groups in angle brackets:
I have some <brackets in <nested brackets> > and
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
and that's it.
The regular expression to match the balanced text uses two new (to Perl
5.10) regular expression features. These are covered in perlre and this
example is a modified version of one in that documentation.
First, adding the new possessive "+" to any quantifier finds the longest
match and does not backtrack. That's important since you want to handle
any angle brackets through the recursion, not backtracking. The group
"[^<>]++" finds one or more nonangle brackets without backtracking.
Second, the new "(?PARNO)" refers to the subpattern in the particular
capture group given by "PARNO". In the following regex, the first
capture group finds (and remembers) the balanced text, and you need that
same pattern within the first buffer to get past the nested text. That's
the recursive part. The "(?1)" uses the pattern in the outer capture
group as an independent part of the regex.
Putting it all together, you have:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.10.0
my $string =<<"HERE";
I have some <brackets in <nested brackets> > and
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
and that's it.
HERE
my @groups = $string =~ m/
( # start of capture group 1
< # match an opening angle bracket
(?:
[^<>]++ # one or more non angle brackets, non backtracking

/xg;
$" = "\n\t";
print "Found:\n\t@groups\n";
The output shows that Perl found the two major groups:
Found:
<brackets in <nested brackets> >
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
With a little extra work, you can get the all of the groups in angle
brackets even if they are in other angle brackets too. Each time you get
a balanced match, remove its outer delimiter (that's the one you just
matched so don't match it again) and add it to a queue of strings to
process. Keep doing that until you get no matches:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.10.0
my @Queue =<<"HERE";
I have some <brackets in <nested brackets> > and
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
and that's it.
HERE
my $regex = qr/
( # start of bracket 1
< # match an opening angle bracket
(?:
[^<>]++ # one or more non angle brackets, non backtracking

(?1) # recurse to bracket 1
)*
/x;
$" = "\n\t";
while( @Queue )
{
my $string = shift @Queue;
my @groups = $string =~ m/$regex/g;
print "Found:\n\t@groups\n\n" if @groups;
unshift @Queue, map { s/^<//; s/>$//; $_ } @groups;
}
The output shows all of the groups. The outermost matches show up first
and the nested matches so up later:
Found:
<brackets in <nested brackets> >
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
Found:
<nested brackets>
Found:
<nested once <nested twice> >
Found:
<nested twice>

The perlfaqworkers, a group of volunteers, maintain the perlfaq. They
are not necessarily experts in every domain where Perl might show up,
so please include as much information as possible and relevant in any
corrections. The perlfaqworkers also don't have access to every
operating system or platform, so please include relevant details for
corrections to examples that do not work on particular platforms.
Working code is greatly appreciated.
If you'd like to help maintain the perlfaq, see the details in
perlfaq.pod.
comes with the standard Perl distribution. These postings aim to
reduce the number of repeated questions as well as allow the community
to review and update the answers. The latest version of the complete
perlfaq is at http://faq.perl.org .

6.12: Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced text?
(contributed by brian d foy)
Your first try should probably be the "Text::Balanced" module, which is
in the Perl standard library since Perl 5.8. It has a variety of
functions to deal with tricky text. The "Regexp::Common" module can also
help by providing canned patterns you can use.
As of Perl 5.10, you can match balanced text with regular expressions
using recursive patterns. Before Perl 5.10, you had to resort to various
tricks such as using Perl code in "(??{})" sequences.
Here's an example using a recursive regular expression. The goal is to
capture all of the text within angle brackets, including the text in
nested angle brackets. This sample text has two "major" groups: a group
with one level of nesting and a group with two levels of nesting. There
are five total groups in angle brackets:
I have some <brackets in <nested brackets> > and
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
and that's it.
The regular expression to match the balanced text uses two new (to Perl
5.10) regular expression features. These are covered in perlre and this
example is a modified version of one in that documentation.
First, adding the new possessive "+" to any quantifier finds the longest
match and does not backtrack. That's important since you want to handle
any angle brackets through the recursion, not backtracking. The group
"[^<>]++" finds one or more nonangle brackets without backtracking.
Second, the new "(?PARNO)" refers to the subpattern in the particular
capture group given by "PARNO". In the following regex, the first
capture group finds (and remembers) the balanced text, and you need that
same pattern within the first buffer to get past the nested text. That's
the recursive part. The "(?1)" uses the pattern in the outer capture
group as an independent part of the regex.
Putting it all together, you have:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.10.0
my $string =<<"HERE";
I have some <brackets in <nested brackets> > and
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
and that's it.
HERE
my @groups = $string =~ m/
( # start of capture group 1
< # match an opening angle bracket
(?:
[^<>]++ # one or more non angle brackets, non backtracking

) # end of capture group 1so recurse to capture group 1 said:# match a closing angle bracket
/xg;
$" = "\n\t";
print "Found:\n\t@groups\n";
The output shows that Perl found the two major groups:
Found:
<brackets in <nested brackets> >
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
With a little extra work, you can get the all of the groups in angle
brackets even if they are in other angle brackets too. Each time you get
a balanced match, remove its outer delimiter (that's the one you just
matched so don't match it again) and add it to a queue of strings to
process. Keep doing that until you get no matches:
#!/usr/local/bin/perl5.10.0
my @Queue =<<"HERE";
I have some <brackets in <nested brackets> > and
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
and that's it.
HERE
my $regex = qr/
( # start of bracket 1
< # match an opening angle bracket
(?:
[^<>]++ # one or more non angle brackets, non backtracking

(?1) # recurse to bracket 1
)*
) # end of bracket 1# match a closing angle bracket
/x;
$" = "\n\t";
while( @Queue )
{
my $string = shift @Queue;
my @groups = $string =~ m/$regex/g;
print "Found:\n\t@groups\n\n" if @groups;
unshift @Queue, map { s/^<//; s/>$//; $_ } @groups;
}
The output shows all of the groups. The outermost matches show up first
and the nested matches so up later:
Found:
<brackets in <nested brackets> >
<another group <nested once <nested twice> > >
Found:
<nested brackets>
Found:
<nested once <nested twice> >
Found:
<nested twice>

The perlfaqworkers, a group of volunteers, maintain the perlfaq. They
are not necessarily experts in every domain where Perl might show up,
so please include as much information as possible and relevant in any
corrections. The perlfaqworkers also don't have access to every
operating system or platform, so please include relevant details for
corrections to examples that do not work on particular platforms.
Working code is greatly appreciated.
If you'd like to help maintain the perlfaq, see the details in
perlfaq.pod.