M

#### Matthew Moss

description was old-school, and most of the solutions have that

feeling. In return, I'm looked at the solutions from a similar

viewport. While the solution from _Jesse Brown_ is simple and makes

use of `gnuplot` -- and would generally be a good way to solve the

problem -- it ain't old-school. (Of course, this means that if you

have a real graphing problem, using `gnuplot` _would_ be a good idea.)

_Michael Suchanek_ provided a solution using RubyX11. Oh man, does

that bring back memories... Michael just opened up a can of X11

goodness that, with Ruby, looks trivial compared to my old X11 C code.

I am rather tempted to study this library and start playing, but I do

have papers to write and books to analyze. Please take a look at

Michael's code, because X11 is definitely old-school, definitely

powerful, and RubyX11 makes it definitely cool.

The ASCII solution from _brabuhr_ is also several flavors of awesome.

Heck, if we geeks can still be entertained playing ASCII games like

[Nethack][1] and [Dwarf Fortress][2], then why not our function

plotters? This solution is also totally Ruby, with a single, trivial

function that accepts your "equation" as a block... Top notch, dear

sir.

I am going to go into a bit of detail with _Martin DeMello_'s

solution, not because he wrote the quiz, but it reminded me most of my

_oldest_ coding experience: BASIC. Sure, there's a class and a

function or two in there, but I could imagine line numbers in front of

the code and almost expected to see a `GOTO` statement in there

somewhere.

Plus, it makes use of the cool, little, cross-platform Ruby library

for making little applications: [Shoes][3]. While Shoes still seems a

little rough around the edges, it's a fun environment and API, a kind

of toy that recalls days on the Commodore 64. (I use Apple computers

nowadays, but back then, Commondore was king!)

Here's the main body:

Shoes.app :height => Y, :width => X do

g = Grapher.new

background rgb(255, 255, 255)

fill white

stroke black

strokewidth 1

u, v = nil

Xmin.step(Xmax, (Xmax - Xmin)/(X*1.0)) {|i|

begin

x0, y0 = g.at(u,v)

u, v = i, g.fn(i)

x, y = g.at(u,v)

if g.bounded?(x,y) and g.bounded?(x0,y0)

line(x0, y0, x, y)

end

rescue

end

}

end

There are three essential things going on here. First, the creation of

a Shoes application and the calls to prepare it, such as `fill white`

and `strokewidth 1`. Second is the creation of a `Grapher` object and

the calls into it: we'll come back to that. Finally, the main loop is

here, contained in this one line:

Xmin.step(Xmax, (Xmax - Xmin)/(X*1.0)) {|i|

`Numeric#step` is a method that works for either integers or floats,

and counts from the first number (`Xmin`) up to the second number

(`Xmax`) by the provided increment. Martin divides the window width

into the user-specified domain. This increment will ensure the

evaluations contained within the loop are evaluated once per

horizontal pixel.

The multiplication by 1.0 serves to convert X (and the rest of that

expression) to floating-point. Now, typically this might be done with

the `to_f` method. But multiplying by 1.0 seems old-school, especially

as it is one character less that `.to_f`. Rad.

The `Grapher` is a simple class containing three methods. `bounded?`

and `fn` are fairly straightforward; the former checks that a

coordinate pair is contained within the window's drawing area, while

the latter evaluates the function provided by the user. Then there's

`Grapher#at`:

def at(x,y)

[((x - Xmin) * XScale).to_i, Y - ((y - Ymin) * YScale).to_i] rescue nil

end

This function converts the pair `(x, y)` from function-space values to

window-space values. That is, it maps the evaluation of the function

to the appropriate coordinate within the Shoes window. There is some

repetition here that could stand to be refactored into a general

`lerp` method (i.e. linear interpolation), but as we're in old-school

mode, I'll let it slide.

So, back in the main loop, we can now read this easily. For each

iteration, we evaluate the provided function at each pixel column of

the domain (`i`, stored to `u`) to get the pixel row (`v`) via method

`fn`. The `(u, v)` pair is converted to window coordinates `(x, y)`

via method `at`. The previous window coordinate is recalculated into

`(x0, y0)`, and the Shoes' `line` method is called to draw a line

between the two window coordinates.

Good show, gents. Now, if I can get Ruby running on this ol' Commodore

64 sitting in the closet, my life will be complete.

[1]: http://www.nethack.org/

[2]: http://bay12games.com/dwarves/

[3]: http://shoooes.net/

New quiz will show up later this evening, or early tomorrow morning.

Quick hint: it's about time to finish the final part of the

Statistician quiz.