# [SUMMARY] Equation Graphing (#176)

M

#### Matthew Moss

I have to say, I think Martin provided a great quiz here... His
description was old-school, and most of the solutions have that
feeling. In return, I'm looked at the solutions from a similar
viewport. While the solution from _Jesse Brown_ is simple and makes
use of `gnuplot` -- and would generally be a good way to solve the
problem -- it ain't old-school. (Of course, this means that if you
have a real graphing problem, using `gnuplot` _would_ be a good idea.)

_Michael Suchanek_ provided a solution using RubyX11. Oh man, does
that bring back memories... Michael just opened up a can of X11
goodness that, with Ruby, looks trivial compared to my old X11 C code.
I am rather tempted to study this library and start playing, but I do
have papers to write and books to analyze. Please take a look at
Michael's code, because X11 is definitely old-school, definitely
powerful, and RubyX11 makes it definitely cool.

The ASCII solution from _brabuhr_ is also several flavors of awesome.
Heck, if we geeks can still be entertained playing ASCII games like
[Nethack][1] and [Dwarf Fortress][2], then why not our function
plotters? This solution is also totally Ruby, with a single, trivial
function that accepts your "equation" as a block... Top notch, dear
sir.

I am going to go into a bit of detail with _Martin DeMello_'s
solution, not because he wrote the quiz, but it reminded me most of my
_oldest_ coding experience: BASIC. Sure, there's a class and a
function or two in there, but I could imagine line numbers in front of
the code and almost expected to see a `GOTO` statement in there
somewhere.

Plus, it makes use of the cool, little, cross-platform Ruby library
for making little applications: [Shoes][3]. While Shoes still seems a
little rough around the edges, it's a fun environment and API, a kind
of toy that recalls days on the Commodore 64. (I use Apple computers
nowadays, but back then, Commondore was king!)

Here's the main body:

Shoes.app :height => Y, :width => X do
g = Grapher.new
background rgb(255, 255, 255)

fill white
stroke black
strokewidth 1
u, v = nil
Xmin.step(Xmax, (Xmax - Xmin)/(X*1.0)) {|i|
begin
x0, y0 = g.at(u,v)
u, v = i, g.fn(i)
x, y = g.at(u,v)
if g.bounded?(x,y) and g.bounded?(x0,y0)
line(x0, y0, x, y)
end
rescue
end
}
end

There are three essential things going on here. First, the creation of
a Shoes application and the calls to prepare it, such as `fill white`
and `strokewidth 1`. Second is the creation of a `Grapher` object and
the calls into it: we'll come back to that. Finally, the main loop is
here, contained in this one line:

Xmin.step(Xmax, (Xmax - Xmin)/(X*1.0)) {|i|

`Numeric#step` is a method that works for either integers or floats,
and counts from the first number (`Xmin`) up to the second number
(`Xmax`) by the provided increment. Martin divides the window width
into the user-specified domain. This increment will ensure the
evaluations contained within the loop are evaluated once per
horizontal pixel.

The multiplication by 1.0 serves to convert X (and the rest of that
expression) to floating-point. Now, typically this might be done with
the `to_f` method. But multiplying by 1.0 seems old-school, especially
as it is one character less that `.to_f`. Rad.

The `Grapher` is a simple class containing three methods. `bounded?`
and `fn` are fairly straightforward; the former checks that a
coordinate pair is contained within the window's drawing area, while
the latter evaluates the function provided by the user. Then there's
`Grapher#at`:

def at(x,y)
[((x - Xmin) * XScale).to_i, Y - ((y - Ymin) * YScale).to_i] rescue nil
end

This function converts the pair `(x, y)` from function-space values to
window-space values. That is, it maps the evaluation of the function
to the appropriate coordinate within the Shoes window. There is some
repetition here that could stand to be refactored into a general
`lerp` method (i.e. linear interpolation), but as we're in old-school
mode, I'll let it slide.

So, back in the main loop, we can now read this easily. For each
iteration, we evaluate the provided function at each pixel column of
the domain (`i`, stored to `u`) to get the pixel row (`v`) via method
`fn`. The `(u, v)` pair is converted to window coordinates `(x, y)`
via method `at`. The previous window coordinate is recalculated into
`(x0, y0)`, and the Shoes' `line` method is called to draw a line
between the two window coordinates.

Good show, gents. Now, if I can get Ruby running on this ol' Commodore
64 sitting in the closet, my life will be complete.

[1]: http://www.nethack.org/
[2]: http://bay12games.com/dwarves/
[3]: http://shoooes.net/

New quiz will show up later this evening, or early tomorrow morning.
Quick hint: it's about time to finish the final part of the
Statistician quiz.

M

#### Martin DeMello

The ASCII solution from _brabuhr_ is also several flavors of awesome.
Heck, if we geeks can still be entertained playing ASCII games like
[Nethack][1] and [Dwarf Fortress][2], then why not our function
plotters? This solution is also totally Ruby, with a single, trivial
function that accepts your "equation" as a block... Top notch, dear
sir.

Another very neat feature is it can handle equations of the general
form f(x,y) = 0, rather than the more limited y = f(x)

martin