Military Combat Simulations & Games with VRML/X3d and optimized solutions


P

P. Flavin

Our US Military uses 3d Simulations for Combat Training.

Specialized Tools including games such as the
Unreal and Quake Quake Game Engines are used for 3d sims
and modern languages optimized for safe and efficient
networking that are portable across CPUS & OSes: eg. Java.

VRML / X3D can be used, but solutions optimized for
the highly interactive, multiuser and multiple screens
of an emersive CAVE enviroment beg for better tools.


Here's the question, and several solutions to consider.


US Army Research programmer wrote:
|
| I would like to model the interior of buildings for
| rehearsal of MOUT ( Military Operations in Urban Terrain )
| by our troops.
|
| I have been ... reading a VRML text and understanding
| the language itself. But now I am trying to figure
| where to begin, having only an understanding of this 1 tool.
|
| If anyone has suggestions on books, software
| (free or commercial), ... I would be indebted.
|
| My goal is to have a tool for our soldiers for
| securing a building by moving through it room by room.
| I would like the building as realistic as possible
| by populating it with furniture, objects, etc and then
| placing terrorists and friendly forces ... inside.
|
|
| Thank you.
|
| - Andrew M. Neiderer
| Computer Programmer
| US Army Research Laboratory
|
http://groups.google.com/groups?&[email protected]


America's Army Game / Recruiting tool
-------------------------------------
http://www.americasarmy.com/

It works, it's available, it runs on Windows & Linux.


Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) for DoD
-----------------------------------------------------
|
| The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO)
| is the catalyst organization for Department of Defense
| (DoD) modeling and simulation (M&S) and ensures that
| M&S technology development is consistent with other
| related initiatives.
|
| The DMSO performs those key corporate level functions
| necessary to encourage cooperation, synergism, and
| cost-effectiveness among the M&S activities of the
| DoD Components.
|
| The DMSO supports the warfighter by leading a
| defense-wide team in fostering the
|
| interoperability, reuse, and affordability
|
| of M&S and the responsive application of these
| tools to provide revolutionary warfighting capabilities
|
https://www.dmso.mil


Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain
-----------------------------------------
|
| Modern military doctrine places a strong emphasis
| on urban warfare, commonly referred to as
| Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT).
|
| Trainee instrumentation, called Player Detection Devices
| (PDDs), has a key role in generating data for
| real-time situational awareness of engagement scenarios
| and After-Action Reviews (AAR) of MOUT live simulation
| exercises.
|
http://www.tspi.swri.org/technology/dist_sim_systems/subsection_mout.shtm


VIRTE MOUT USN/Office of Naval Research.
-------------------------------------------
|
| Development of realistic autonomous intelligent adversaries
| for training Marines in virtual simulations of urban battlefields.
| Working in tandem with the AI Laboratory at U of Michigan and
| Dr. John Laird. November 2001 - September 2003.
|
http://www.soartech.com/htmlonly/projects.html


Urban Warfare Simulation Helps Train Company Commanders
-------------------------------------------------------
|
| A new high-tech simulation is now available to
| U.S. Army captains who are preparing to lead infantry
| units in urban warfare scenarios.
|
| The computer game, called Full Spectrum Command,
| is the first of its kind, because it was specifically
| designed to make trainees ?think through the challenges
| associated with urban combat, ...
|
http://www.nationaldefensemagazine.org/article.cfm?Id=1026


RAPID BUILDING GENERATION AND STRUCTURAL WEAPONS EFFECTS FOR MOUT
-----------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.asc2002.com/summaries/h/HP-07.pdf

http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~soar/workshop23/talks/Laird - VIRTE-MOUT.pdf
http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~soar/workshop23/talks/index.html
http://www.eecs.umich.edu/~soar/
http://www.asc2002.com/summaries/h/HP-07.pdf
Multiplayer Games Research
--------------------------
http://tail.eecs.umich.edu/warriors/games
http://www.army-technology.com/contractors/training/


Combat Simulation - Distributed Interactive Simulation
------------------------------------------------------
( DIS-Java-VRML Working Group )
|
Savage --- Scenario Authoring and Visualization
----------- for Advanced Graphical Environments
|
|
http://web.nps.navy.mil/~brutzman/vrtp/dis-java-vrml/download.html
http://web.nps.navy.mil/~brutzman/Savage/contents.html
http://www.stl.nps.navy.mil/~brutzman/java/


| The purpose of VIRTE is to develop, demonstrate and
| transition virtual and augmented technologies for
| training supplementing and complementing
| live combat training. ...
|
| VIRTE provides a compendium of technologies focusing
| on the human perpetual and cognitive functions in a
| virtual environment to simulate human natural direct
| interaction.
|
http://www.movesinstitute.org/darken/virte/demonstrations.html
http://www.movesinstitute.org/researchdir.html


JIST3 - Warfare Systems - Urban Operations
------------------------------------------
http://jcs.mil/technology/uo.html
http://www.urbanoperations.com/training.htm

Xith3d ( Formerly Magicosm ) 3d Networked Game
----------------------------
https://xith3d.dev.java.net/
http://www.cosm-game.com/screenshots.php


Java3d Game SDK ( one project of many )
------------------------------------------
https://java3dgamesdk.dev.java.net/source/browse/java3dgamesdk/demo/
https://java3dgamesdk.dev.java.net/servlets/ProjectDocumentList
http://awaredreams.com/java3dgamesdk/screenshots.jsp

Java Gaming ( 2d, 3d, Desktop, Phones, etc )
--------------------------------------------
http://javagaming.org/cgi-bin/JGNetForums/YaBB.cgi
http://community.java.net/games/


| Web3d.org's H-Anim Models are used by
|
| Don Brutzman's US Navy Postgraduate School
|
| Web based DIS-VRML-Java combat simulation,
|
| NSF funded American Sign Language and Finger Spelling
| Avatars, and NIST Humanoid animation projects ...
|
|
| Finger Spelling, Darts & Chess VRML file animates with Java3d
| -------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/java3d_and_vrml.html
http://home.rochester.rr.com/javajava/media/darts_animation_movie.mov

http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/shout3d/models/H-Anim/darts_animation_VRML.wrl

http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/shout3d/models/H-Anim/nancy_H-Anim_x3d.wrl
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2002/06/1325.html

http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0305&L=java3d-interest&P=R25128


Sensor to Shooter, Networked Combat Systems: Java Kills
-------------------------------------------------------
Distributed Real-Time with Java ? Really!
-----------------------------------------
http://pitfall.mitre.org/library/tog-ballsorter-slides.pdf
http://www.iwar.org.uk/iwar/resources/info-superiority1999/
http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/MILREV/English/JulAug98/caravell.htm
http://www.missionsystems.lockheedmartin.com/about/index.html

" 3D WarGames, for Real : Battle Management in the US Army "
------------------------------------------------------------
http://www.motorola.com/GSS/SSTG/ISD/
Sensor_to_Shooter/sensor_to_shooter.html

$50 Million Dollars, Motorola, Sun, & the US Army
----------------------------------------------------
| Openwings, the proposed architecture, uses Sun
| Jini and Java technologies that will enable the
| Army to "plug-and-play" situational awareness
| systems into next-generation C4I infrastructures.
|
| The project is a joint research and development
| effort conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Army.
| Motorola and Sun will develop Openwings as a
| non-proprietary, open specification using a
| community-process model similar to the one Sun
| uses on the development of its Java technologies.
|
| [ See a demo in June ... @ JavaOne or on the web. ]
|
http://www.motorola.com/GSS/SSTG/ISD/press/20000210.html
|

http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0106&L=java3d-interest&P=R1967


First-Person Shooter: Game, Tutorial, Sourcecode ( Java )
----------------------
http://fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th/~ad/jg/ch15/index.html
http://fivedots.coe.psu.ac.th/~ad/jg/ch15/ch15.zip


| (Web) Distributed Interactive Simulation ( VRML & Java ); US Navy
| -----------------------------------------------------------------
| http://www.web3d.org/WorkingGroups/vrtp/dis-java-vrml/
| - requires a VRML plug-in : Cosmo or Contact; note: Cortona fails.
|
| RoboForge : Robot Combat Warfare, Networked Game ( Java3D )
| -----------------------------------------------------------
| http://www.roboforge.net
| http://www.roboforge.net/movies/rfdemo2.mpg ( 10 Meg )
|
| Robot Simulation Competition ( Java 1.2, OpenGl, Java3D? )
| http://www.cyberbotics.com/webots/screenshots/index.html
| http://www.cyberbotics.com/webots/index.html
|
| JRobots (Autonomous Virtual Robot Competition ) -- ( Java )
| http://www.cfxweb.net/jrobots/
|
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2001/02/0008.html

MODELLING OF URBAN SERVICES BY VRML & JAVA
------------------------------------------
http://st.itim.unige.it/itim/websim1999/w134.html


Training of Football Players in the Virtual Reality CAVE
--------------------------------------------------------
| The CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) is
| currently the most advanced system for
| immersive virtual reality.
|
| The University of Michigan operates such a system ...
|
| A CAVE provides its users with the convincing illusion
| of being fully immersed in a three-dimensional world that
| is computer-generated and presented to the viewer in
| realistic full scale as well as in stereo.
|
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/index.html
|
| Architectural Walk-Through: (VRML model ...
| ----------------------------------------
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/barcelona/vrml2/barcelona.wrl
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/barcelona/index.html
|
| Virtual Reality-Enhanced Medical Readiness Trainer - MRT
| ---------------------------------------------------------
| This ongoing project is an interdisciplinary effort at
| the University of Michigan involving the Medical Center,
| the Department of Emergency Medicine, the Media Union,
| and the Virtual Reality Laboratory at the College of Engineering.
|
| The objective is the development of a
| "Virtual Reality-Enhanced Medical Readiness Trainer" (MRT)
| that integrates advanced technologies like human patient
| simulators, immersive virtual reality CAVE systems,
| next generation Internet technology, virtual video conferencing,
| and more in the context of distributed and shared
| virtual environments for the training of emergency personnel
| in a variety of common as well as extreme situations.
|
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/mrt/AndreVRML/Combo.wrl
|
| [ This be rendered with Java3d using the Sun VRML Loaders ]
|
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/mrt/index.html
|
| IBM Educational Project
| -------------------------
| This Web site presents the results of a pilot study
| conducted by the University of Michigan Virtual Reality
| Laboratory for IBM, Inc. The study explores
| the usefulness of VRML, the Virtual Reality Modeling
| Language on the World Wide Web, for the development of
| educational material on the Web.
|
| The following two Pilot Applications were developed:
|
| Conic Sections : An interactive tool to visualize
| -------------- the intersection of a cone with a plane
|
| VRML is a standard for the distribution of
| 3-D models over the Web. The models can be
| functional and interactive. To view VRML models,
| a VRML plug-in is required for your favorite
| Web browser.
|
| We recommend the CosmoPlayer plug-in ..
| ------------------------------------
|
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/projects.html


US Navy PGS Diver, NIST CAESAR Animations, NSF Finger Spelling
----------------------------------------------------------------
|
| VRML Animations work in your browser with the Sun VRML Loaders
|
http://ovrt.nist.gov/projects/wear/caesarsegment/index.html
http://www.web3d.org/TaskGroups/x3d/translation/examples/HumanoidAnimation/NancyDiving.wrl

http://www.web3d.org/TaskGroups/x3d/translation/examples/HumanoidAnimation/AllenDutton.wrl

http://ovrt.nist.gov/projects/wear/caesarsegment/csr0099a/csr0099a.wrl
|
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/vrml_loaders_working.html


Combat Simulation ( Networked, Mult-user 3d Tank Combat Game )
------------------------------------------------------------
http://home.rochester.rr.com/javajava/sc_tanks_and_robots.jpg
|
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/java3d_and_vrml.html


Java3d Animates Web3d.org's H-Anim Avtars in a browser
------ without certificates with Sun's VRML Loaders.

-- Paul, Java Developer & Web Animator
 
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P

P. Flavin

Yes, Cheap VR Caves can create Immersive Worlds.


More Cheap and More Portable & Extensible is Better
---------------------------------------------------

Java, Linux & VRML made for cheap, portable Caves.
-------------------------------------------------
Portable in that supporting hardware can be swapped
out an there is no vendor lock to a CPU or OS.


Joerg Scheurich wrote to comp.lang.vrml:
|
| >
| > VRML / X3D can be used, but
| > solutions optimized for the highly
| > interactive, multiuser and multiple screens
| > of an emersive CAVE enviroment
| > beg for better tools.
|
|
| What you are talking about ?
|
| There are solutions for highly interactive,
| multiuser and multiple screens of an
| emersive CAVE enviroment that can make use of
| VRML files (like cover/covise)
|
| - the only problem i see:
|
| these solutions are ofter rather expensive 8-(
|
| so long
| MUFTI
|
http://groups.google.com/groups?th=b5c8235ab900ab72


Cheaper is better.

Given two equally capable systems
frugal consumers prefer the cheaper one.

Inexensive ( with free software ) Caves
can and have been built with Linux and
software by research done by the US NIST
and other federally funded research projects.


6 sided Virtual Realitiy Cube & your NSF ...
----------------------------------------
|
| now under construction in the ISL, is the
| 6-sided virtual reality cube named ALICE. ...
|
| Projects supported in the ISL focus on
| combining novel engineering research with
| psychological studies to determine the
| efficacy of the engineered solutions to
| human-machine communication. The ISL facility
| is supported by the Beckman Institute and the
| National Science Foundation.
|
http://www.isl.uiuc.edu
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2001/12/0155.html


Software ... for Inexpensive VR Via Graphics Clusters
-----------------------------------------------------
|
| Portability is a key design consideration.
|
| By keeping the software framework simple and
| the library dependencies small and limited to
| widely implemented OS services, like
|
| sockets, threads, and OpenGL,
|
| porting the software is quite easy.
|
| The ... system work on SGI Irix, Linux, and Win32.
|
| [ note: so does VRML with Java3d ;^) -- P.F. ]
|
| Portability is critical in the heterogeneous,
| cash-strapped, networked environment targeted
| by this research.
|
| One wants to be able to repurpose already
| existing equipment.
|
| One wants to have the flexibility to run
| any piece of software on
| any piece of hardware around the lab.
|
| [ Um, like: Write Once, Run Everywhere. -- P.F. ]
|
| Expensive SGI hardware should not go
| to waste, and choice of a variety of
| PC operating systems ensures that one
| will be able to track PC graphics
| performance and graphics drivers no
| matter which OS forges ahead.
|
| [ Integrated Systems Lab, University of Illinois ]
|
http://www.isl.uiuc.edu/ClusteredVR/paper/DGDoverview.htm
http://www.isl.uiuc.edu/ClusteredVR/ClusteredVR.htm
http://www.isl.uiuc.edu/ClusteredVR/szg-0.3.tar.gz (software)
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2001/12/0155.html


Original Post: Paul Fishwick: Caves - a cheaper version
=====================================================
|
| I am seeking solutions to the problem of viewing
|
| VRML worlds on a NAVE.
|
| The overview of the NAVE can be found at
|
| http://www.digitalworlds.ufl.edu/research/nave/default.asp
|
| There is one host PC that sends position and orientation
| information (of the avatar) to each of 3 PCs, each of
| which projects an image onto a panel.
|
| With 3 panels, one obtains a panoramic view.
|
| The only problem that we have now is that the
| default software to make this work revolves
| around a package called "SVE" (which uses OpenGL).
|
| We'd like to make the NAVE available to the
| display of VRML (and X3D). This would open the
| NAVE to many more applications.
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2002/01/0423.html
|
http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0202&L=java3d-interest&P=R59854


Paul, please meet Vincent Stanford.

Your tax dollars have helped Mr. Stanford build
a networked conferencing system at the NIST that
your system would benefit from, if you used compatible
open standards.


one proposed solution ...

| Assuming the Cortona VRML Player ActiveX
|
| control can give you such notifications,
| a scenario could be ...
|
| I haven't yet integrated them with VRML,
|
| but there should be no need if you can script
| them from Cortona.
|
| I'm also thinking of making a Blaxxun deviceSensor
| out of them ...
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2002/01/0424.html


It would seem open standards and portable solutions
would preferable, and please note the NSF and NIST has
funded research ( see above ) that are portable and
some or all of the software is available for free
and a lot of work has been done successfully with
Java, and this includes MPEG-4 predecessors with
Web3d's H-Anim Avatars.


| 'Smart' Video Conferencing with open standards (Nist)
|
| Government Computer News ( Today, Feb. 12, 2002 ):
| ------------------------
|
| NIST delves into pervasive computing
| ------------------------------------
|
| Pervasive-computing systems could make
| conference rooms brainy, according to the
| Smart Space Laboratory researchers at the
| National Institute of Standards and Technology.
| ...
| The meeting room generates about 1G per minute
| or 60G per hour of data from five steerable
| Sony EVI-D30 videoconferencing cameras ...
| [and] about 200 low-cost ... microphones ...
| The open-source clustering software can harness
| up to 24 computers, Stanford said.
|
| NIST has made the source code and
| documentation available for download at
http://www.nist.gov/smartspace/toolChest/nsfs
http://www.gcn.com/21_3/tech-report/17856-1.html
|
http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0202&L=java3d-interest&P=R31446
|
http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0202&L=java3d-interest&P=R59854



| Cluster for Immersive VR (slashdot.org)
| --------------------------( today: Dec. 18, 2001 )
| |
| | the folks down at the University of Illinois ...
| | created a 6-sided CAVE like system called ALICE.
| |
| | But, instead of running it off of a SGI Onyx,
| | they've developed a distributed environment for
| | visualization called Syzygy. [souce code avialable]
| |
| http://slashdot.org/articles/01/12/18/0424225.shtml
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2001/12/0155.html


| NIST Smart Space 'Smart' Video Conferencing
| -------------------------------------------
|
| ( Source Code Available -- free -- you already paid ! )
|
http://www.nist.gov/smartspace/toolChest/nsfs/#dataFlowDownload
http://www.nist.gov/smartspace/toolChest/nsfs/dataFlow/NSFS_source-1.0.tgz
http:toolChest/nsfs/dataFlow/NSFS_source-1.0.tgz
| ( note: the above is a bad link from the above page )
|
| The goals, techniques & technologies of this government effort
| is complementary to the VRML - Web Animation - Java3d work
| of these groups, and the source code is avaiable. ;^)
|
| It's a C / Linux implementation, uses 'open standards',
| and thus would intergegrate and work with ... VRML & Java3d.
|
http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0202&L=java3d-interest&P=R31446


Human Animation with Open Standards: H-Anim & VRML
---------------------------------------------------
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/java3d_and_vrml.html
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/H-Anim_Avatars.html

NIST Human Models Animated with Java3d & the old way:
----------------------------------------------------
http://ovrt.nist.gov/home.html
http://ovrt.nist.gov/projects/mfg/3int/3int.wrl
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/sc_manufacturing_simulation.jpg
http://www.frontiernet.net/~imaging/games_with_java3d.html

-- The above shows how to do Web Animation with VRML & Java3d.


The dis-advantages of vendor lock:

| [www-vrml] Microsoft VM & EAI with Cortona - URGENT
| ---------------------------------------------------
| I have a huge problem at the moment and
| I need a quick response if at all possible!
|
| I have had a tool up for over a year now and
| have just discovered that the latest
| _ Microsoft VM _ (Build 5.0.0.3802) will
| __ not ___ work ...
|
| My code has not changed at all, so that is not the answer.
|
| I am stuck on how to resolve this and
| our client is demo'ing this tool ... Please help!
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2001/12/0186.html
|
http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0202&L=java3d-interest&P=R59854


Cluster for Immersive VR (slashdot.org)
--------------------------( today: Dec. 18, 2001 )
|
| the folks down at the University of Illinois ...
| created a 6-sided CAVE like system called ALICE.
|
| But, instead of running it off of a SGI Onyx,
| they've developed a distributed environment for
| visualization called Syzygy. [souce code avialable]
|
http://slashdot.org/articles/01/12/18/0424225.shtml
|
http://www.web3d.org/www-vrml/hypermail/2001/12/0155.html

Football Players in the Virtual Reality CAVE
--------------------------------------------
|
| The CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment) is
| currently the most advanced system for
| immersive virtual reality.
|
| The University of Michigan operates such a system ...
|
| A CAVE provides its users with the convincing illusion
| of being fully immersed in a three-dimensional world
| that is computer-generated and presented to the viewer
| in realistic full scale as well as in stereo.
|
| [ Java implementation shown in Play Chart : ]
|
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/denver_michigan_chase.gif
|
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/index.html
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/vrml/stand_geo.wrl
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/vrml/run_stick.wrl
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/vrml/stand_geo.wrl
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/skeleton.html

| In a typical training session, the trainee
| (e.g., a quarterback) wears the shutter glasses and
| is fully immersed in the virtual play.
|
| The trainer (e.g., a coach) sits on the side and
| uses a laptop to control the training session.
| A special menu in the Chart Editor program
| (previously used to model a play in 2-D) provides
| all control functions for the CAVE.
|
| [ Java implementation shown in Play Chart : ]
http://www-vrl.umich.edu/project/football/denver_michigan_chase.gif
|
http://www.fathom.com/fks/catalog/feature.jhtml?story_id=122244&featurePageNumber=3
|
http://archives.java.sun.com/cgi-bin/wa?A2=ind0302&L=java3d-interest&P=R38838



- Paul, Java Developer & Web Animator
 

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