performance of tight loop

G

gry

[python-2.4.3, rh CentOS release 5.5 linux, 24 xeon cpu's, 24GB ram]
I have a little data generator that I'd like to go faster... any
suggestions?
maxint is usually 9223372036854775808(max 64bit int), but could
occasionally be 99.
width is usually 500 or 1600, rows ~ 5000.

from random import randint

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest
....
while True:
print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(i,i+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))
print '\.'
 
S

Steven D'Aprano

[python-2.4.3, rh CentOS release 5.5 linux, 24 xeon cpu's, 24GB ram] I
have a little data generator that I'd like to go faster... any
suggestions?
maxint is usually 9223372036854775808(max 64bit int), but could
occasionally be 99.
width is usually 500 or 1600, rows ~ 5000.

from random import randint

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest
...
while True:
print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(i,i+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))
print '\.'


This isn't entirely clear to me. Why is the while loop indented? I assume
it's part of some other function that you haven't shown us, rather than
part of the function row().

Assuming this, I would say that the overhead of I/O (the print commands)
will likely be tens or hundreds of times greater than the overhead of the
loop, so you're probably not likely to see much appreciable benefit. You
might save off a few seconds from something that runs for many minutes. I
don't see the point, really.

If the print statements are informative rather than necessary, I would
print every tenth (say) line rather than every line. That should save
*lots* of time.

Replacing "while True" with "while 1" may save a tiny bit of overhead.
Whether it is significant or not is another thing.

Replacing range with xrange should also make a difference, especially if
rows is a large number.

Moving the code from row() inline, replacing string interpolation with
calls to str(), may also help. Making local variables of any globals may
also help a tiny bit. But as I said, you're shaving microseconds of
overhead and spending millseconds printing -- the difference will be tiny.

But for what it's worth, I'd try this:


# Avoid globals in favour of locals.
from random import randint
_maxint = maxint
loop = xrange(i, i+rows) # Where does i come from?
inner_loop = xrange(width) # Note 1 more than before.
while 1:
print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in loop:
row = [str(randint(1, _maxint)) for _ in inner_loop]
row[0] = str(i) # replace in place
print ','.join(row)
print '\.'



Hope it helps.
 
U

Ulrich Eckhardt

gry said:
I have a little data generator that I'd like to go faster... any
suggestions?
maxint is usually 9223372036854775808(max 64bit int), but could
occasionally be 99.
width is usually 500 or 1600, rows ~ 5000.

from random import randint

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest

A few things here:
* If you can, don't convert the ints to strings. I'm not 100% sure about
Python 2.4, but newer versions will automatically yield long instead of int
if the range exceeds that of an int, so even with large numbers that should
be safe.
* Replace range with xrange.
* Instead of creating and appending lists, you could also use a generator
expression.
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))

All you do here is take a list of strings, build a single string from them
and then print the string. Why not iterate over the list (or, as suggested,
the generator) and print the elements?

Summary: Avoid unnecessary conversions. This includes int to string, but
also logical sequences into arrays.

Uli
 
U

Ulrich Eckhardt

Steven said:
Replacing "while True" with "while 1" may save a tiny bit of overhead.
Whether it is significant or not is another thing.

Is this the price for an intentional complexity or just a well-known
optimizer deficiency?

Just curious...

Uli
 
R

Ryan Kelly

Is this the price for an intentional complexity or just a well-known
optimizer deficiency?

At least on older pythons, you can assign to the name "True" so it's not
possible to optimize that loop - you must look up the name "True" on
each iteration. For example, in python 2.6 this loop will exit after
one iteration:

... True = False
...
To see the difference, take a look at the bytecode python generators for
the type types of loop:

... while 1:
... pass
... ... while True:
... pass
... 2 0 SETUP_LOOP 3 (to 6)

3 >> 3 JUMP_ABSOLUTE 3 6 JUMP_IF_FALSE 4 (to 13)
9 POP_TOP

3 10 JUMP_ABSOLUTE 3

Still, I just can't bring myself to write "while 1" in favour of "while
True" in code.


Python 3 does away with this madness entirely:

... True = False
...

Looking at the bytecode shows that in Python 3, "while 1" and "while
True" are indeed identical.


Cheers,

Ryan


--
Ryan Kelly
http://www.rfk.id.au | This message is digitally signed. Please visit
(e-mail address removed) | http://www.rfk.id.au/ramblings/gpg/ for details


-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----
Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux)

iEYEABECAAYFAk0HIyIACgkQfI5S64uP50qitwCffg/1PpDXuuIFIxANVFqYpZFa
ew0An1Qos8Wnim+iw9AonX8XC15kw0i7
=y0nr
-----END PGP SIGNATURE-----
 
P

Paul Rubin

gry said:
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
for i in range(i,i+rows): ...

One thing that immediately comes to mind is use xrange instead of range.

Also, instead of
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest

you might save some copying with:

rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in xrange(wd)]
rest[0] = '%d'%i
return rest

That's uglier than the old-fashioned
rest = ['%d'%i]
for i in xrange(wd-1):
rest.append('%d' % randint(1, mx))

I think a generator would be cleanest, but maybe slowest:

def row(i, wd, mx):
yield '%d' % i
for j in xrange(wd-1):
yield ('%d' % randint(1, mx))
 
P

Peter Otten

gry said:
[python-2.4.3, rh CentOS release 5.5 linux, 24 xeon cpu's, 24GB ram]
I have a little data generator that I'd like to go faster... any
suggestions?
maxint is usually 9223372036854775808(max 64bit int), but could
occasionally be 99.
width is usually 500 or 1600, rows ~ 5000.

from random import randint

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest
...
while True:
print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(i,i+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))
print '\.'

I see the biggest potential in inlining randint. Unfortunately you did not
provide an executable script and I had to make it up:

$ cat gry.py
from random import randint
import sys

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest

def main():
table_name = "unknown"
maxint = sys.maxint
width = 500
rows = 1000
offset = 0

print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(offset, offset+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))
print '\.'

if __name__ == "__main__":
main()
$ time python gry.py > /dev/null

real 0m5.280s
user 0m5.230s
sys 0m0.050s
$

$ cat gry_inline.py
import random
import math
import sys

def make_rand(n):
if n < 1 << random.BPF:
def rand(random=random.random):
return int(n*random())+1
else:
k = int(1.00001 + math.log(n-1, 2.0))
def rand(getrandbits=random.getrandbits):
r = getrandbits(k)
while r >= n:
r = getrandbits(k)
return r+1
return rand

def row(i, wd, rand):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % rand() for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest

def main():
table_name = "unknown"
maxint = sys.maxint
width = 500
rows = 1000
offset = 0

rand = make_rand(maxint)

print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(offset, offset+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, rand))
print '\.'

if __name__ == "__main__":
main()
$ time python gry_inline.py > /dev/null

real 0m2.004s
user 0m2.000s
sys 0m0.000s
$

Disclaimer: the code in random.py is complex enough that I cannot guarantee
I snatched the right pieces.

Peter
 
P

Peter Otten

Peter said:
gry said:
[python-2.4.3, rh CentOS release 5.5 linux, 24 xeon cpu's, 24GB ram]
I have a little data generator that I'd like to go faster... any
suggestions?
maxint is usually 9223372036854775808(max 64bit int), but could
occasionally be 99.
width is usually 500 or 1600, rows ~ 5000.

from random import randint

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % randint(1, mx) for i in range(wd - 1)]
return first + rest
...
while True:
print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(i,i+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))
print '\.'

I see the biggest potential in inlining randint. Unfortunately you did not
provide an executable script and I had to make it up:
$ time python gry_inline.py > /dev/null

real 0m2.004s
user 0m2.000s
sys 0m0.000s

On second thought, if you have numpy available:

$ cat gry_numpy.py
from numpy.random import randint
import sys

def row(i, wd, mx):
first = ['%d' % i]
rest = ['%d' % i for i in randint(1, mx, wd - 1)]
return first + rest

def main():
table_name = "unknown"
maxint = sys.maxint
width = 500
rows = 1000
offset = 0

print "copy %s from stdin direct delimiter ',';" % table_name
for i in range(offset, offset+rows):
print ','.join(row(i, width, maxint))
print '\.'

if __name__ == "__main__":
main()
$ time python gry_numpy.py > /dev/null

real 0m1.024s
user 0m1.010s
sys 0m0.010s
$

Argh

Peter
 

Ask a Question

Want to reply to this thread or ask your own question?

You'll need to choose a username for the site, which only take a couple of moments. After that, you can post your question and our members will help you out.

Ask a Question

Members online

No members online now.

Forum statistics

Threads
473,818
Messages
2,569,732
Members
45,691
Latest member
Dick331194

Latest Threads

Top